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# Find out if speed affects stopping distances.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Trolley Experiment By Chris Mayhew Trolley Experiment Planning Aim: We are trying to find out if speed affects stopping distances What I already know: The equation for speed is: Velocity (speed) = displacement (distance) Measured with a ruler Time Measured with a ticker timer Pilot experiment (simulation): Method: 1. First load up the program 'Science investigations' 2. Then click on trolley and ramp experiment 3. Set the ramp angle to 5o and put the car to the end of the ramp to give maximum potential energy. 4. Let the car go and record how far it went and put the results in a results table. 5. Repeat this 4 times to give a reliable result. 6. Repeat steps 4, 5 and 6 but with 10o instead of 5o until you get to 25o 7. Record all this in your results table Results table: Distance travelled on floor Ramp height Ramp angle CM CM Degrees Test one Test two Test three Test Four Average 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.6 5 24.8 22.9 24.8 23.0 23.9 5.3 10 66.6 66.0 67.0 67.0 66.7 8.0 15 112.0 107.8 111.0 115.3 111.5 10.3 20 150.9 155.2 142.4 140.8 147.3 12.9 25 177.6 188.1 189.7 174.0 182.4 Graph: Typical Stopping Distances 20 MPH 6 metres 6 metres = 12 metres (40 feet) ...read more.

Middle

(Kg) (m/s2) (m) Ep = mgh More height = more Ep NOTE: Gravity is 10m/s2 Kinetic energy Kinetic energy, energy possessed by an object, resulting from the motion of that object. The magnitude of the kinetic energy depends on both the mass and the speed of that object according to the equation: Ek = 1/2 x mass x velocity2 (J) (kg) (m/s) more Ek = more velocity Ek = 1/2mv2 Prediction: When you increase the height, you increase the potential energy, which affects the stopping distance. So if you increase the height you increase the stopping distance. And if you increase your speed you will increase your stopping distance. If you double the speed, you more than double your stopping distance. Plan: Equipment: * A trolley * Metre rules for straight lines * Blocks (or something to raise the height) to make an even height every time * Ramp because it has metal sides * Ticker Tape * Ticker timer because there very accurate * Pencil to write the tablle Diagram: Ticker Timer Ticker tape Trolley Blocks Ramp Floor What I will do: NOTE: Make sure that the trolley is at the end of the ramp to give maximum potential energy and to make it a fair test. 1. Set up the equipment as shown in the diagram but with one block. ...read more.

Conclusion

Also the ticker timer put two dots on the paper in the space of one, this also made it tricky the count the dots. Our results are reliable because we repeated our experiment 3 times and then we made an average. Our results were quite close together so this makes it more reliable. But our result were not so reliable as well because the ramp wasn't perfect smooth at the end so we had to put some blue-tack to compensate for this, this might also make the ramp rough. Also the trolley's wheels were rough and not very smooth. There was one answer that did not fit the pattern and that could have been a freak result caused by something on the track or accidental knock. We could improve our plan by measuring the stopping distances more accurately. Also we could lubricate the wheel, but this might not make it a fair test because the first time will be quicker than the second. And we could change the ticker timer to a light gate because it is very accurate to measure acceleration. If we did use it we could put it at the end of the ramp, just as it leaves to get its optimum speed and acceleration. Also we could repeat the experiment more times. We could check any trend or pattern by redoing it again. For our next experiment we could see whether potential energy affects the kinetic energy given. ...read more.

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