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Find out the accurate concentration of an aid solution thought to have a concentration of between 0.05-0.15 mol dm3 by using the titration method...

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Introduction

Task: Find out the accurate concentration of an aid solution thought to have a concentration of between 0.05-0.15 mol dm3 by using the titration method... Apparatus: * Acid solution solid anhydrous sodium carbonate (2.65g) * Distilled water (250cm3) * Top-pan balance * Glass stirring rod * White tile * Safety goggles * 250cm3 conical flask * 25cm3 pipette * Pipette filler * Burette * Clamp stand and boss * Methyl orange indicator solution Controlled variables: To ensure that this investigation is a fair test, the following factors must be closely observed; Factor which induce a change in results:- * Room temperature (assumed to remain constant throughout.) * Volume and concentration of alkali solution * Volume and concentration of acid * Accuracy of measurements * Amount of indicator used Constants:- * Room temperature (assumed to remain constant throughout.) * Volume and concentration of alkali solution * Volume and concentration of acid * Accuracy of measurements * Amount of indicator used Range:- * Methyl orange indicator (3 drops) * Volume of acid solution (5 - 25cm3) * Volume of alkali solution (25cm3) Bibliography:- * Chemical Ideas * Chemical Storylines * Method: 1. Before starting the experiment ensure all equipment is clean by washing it with distilled water or the appropriate solution if dry equipment if not available to prevent any contamination that could affect the results. Remember that alkalis can be just as corrosive as acids so take care. 2. ...read more.

Middle

From the titres which are within 0.1cm3 of each other, calculate an average volume of sodium hydroxide solution used in the titration flask. 10. Combine this average volume with the concentration of the sodium carbonate solution to calculate the amount (in moles) of sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, which just reacts with the acid in the titration flask. The acid in the sample is sulphuric acid. The equation for the reaction in this titration is therefore: H2SO4 (aq) + Na2Co3 (aq) � Na2SO4 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) 11. Write down the concentration of the sulphuric acid in units of mol dm3. Apparatus set-up diagram:- Safety precautions In this experiment we are working with both acids and alkalis, which are corrosives that could cause serious harm. The unknown concentration of the acid is also potentially dangerous... Safety precautions to be taken * Goggles must be worn at all times. * All acids must be poured below eye level so to allow any spillage to reach eyes, as acid is an irritant. * Lab coats must be worn and all relevant safety equipment word. I.e. gloves * Long hair must be tied back. * Do not mouth pipette, always use the filler bulb, so as not to risk sucking acid into your mouth, and risking irritant/corrosive damage. * Ensure to wash any skin or part of the body if they come in contact with either acid or alkali as both are irritant and/or corrosive. ...read more.

Conclusion

flask error = 0.02 x 100 = 0.08% 250 Although the above results only attribute to a small percentage of the total error they still contribute to the total result. An error in the volumetric flask can effect the concentration of the sodium carbonate, pipette errors can attribute towards the amount of Na2CO3 being neutralised. Lastly the burette errors affect the volume of acid which is needed to neutralise the Na2SO4. If I was to repeat this investigation then I feel there are some minor things than I would change, so as to improve the accuracy of my retainable results. The amount of obtained results would increase from 5 to 10 or possibly more, this would give a more accurate average and show up any anomalies. Given the accuracy of the pipette and burette the dropper method used to apply the methyl orange indicator could be improved by such means as using a measuring pipette. Also the change in colour technique relies heavily upon any persons eyesight, an electronic ph metre would absolve this issue any would give us accuracy to the 0.01pH. Contamination of the equipment is a big issue, a possible solution is to have a new set of apparatus for each of the experiments, I realise this is an impossibility as equipment is expensive. Another alternate is to have a form or dishwasher. If I implicated these changes I feel the experiment will run much smoother. ...read more.

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