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# Find out the breaking distance of a trolley car going down a ramp when an independent factor is changed.

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Introduction

Physics Investigation By Christopher Stylianou Aim The aim is to find out the breaking distance of a trolley car going down a ramp when an independent factor is changed. Factors All the independent variables, which could affect the investigation of Breaking Distance, are: > Speed of Vehicle- By changing the speed of the trolley car, it could change the Breaking Distance. > Friction of Wheels- By changing the amount of frictions on the wheels, it could change the Breaking Distance. > Surface Material- By changing the surface material the trolley is travelling on, it could change the Breaking Distance. > Gradient of Slope- By changing the gradient of the slope, it could change the Breaking Distance. > The Breaking Force- By changing the breaking force applied to the trolley car, it could change the Breaking Distance. > Mass of the Vehicle- By changing the mass of the trolley car, it could change the Breaking Distance. Investigation I have decided with the research I have below to investigate the change of breaking force independent variable. This is because I can use a range of different weights applied to the trolley car as it travels down the slope. E.g.: - 100g of breaking force, 120g of breaking force etc... Then, by marking where the breaking force is applied and where the trolley car actually stops, I can work out how far the trolley car has travelled. I can work out the Potential Energy at the beginning of the ramp, where the breaking force is applied and the Kinetic Energy at where the breaking force is applied to see how much work is done in stopping the vehicle. Lastly, I can work out the de-acceleration of the trolley car and see whether it increases or decreases when the breaking force is increased. Research * Breaking Force - The force that is applied to a vehicle that is moving to slow or even stop the vehicle. ...read more.

Middle

Repeat experiment until no anomalous results occur. Fair Test: - To make it a fair test you must carry out these precautions: - * The measuring is accurate of the breaking distance. * The right amount of weight is used. * The trolley car is not changed during experiment. * The trolley car is not pushed down the ramp with force. * The ramp gradient/height does not change. * The other factors that could affect the results are not changed. Safety: - To make it a fair test you must carry out these precautions: - * Bags and Stalls are put on the sides of the room, out of the way of any experiment. * The normal Science Labs rules must be obeyed. * Be careful and make sure weights don't drop on the floor. Results: - Before experiment carried out: * Mass of the trolley car = 970.0 grams * Height at top of ramp = 27.2cm * Height where braking force applied = 18.0cm * Average speed of trolley car before breaking force applied: - Ticker timer tape There are 16 x 1/10 and 2 x 1/10 which equals: (16 x 0.1) = 1.6 + (2/50 which is also 0.02 x 2) = 0.04 1.6 + 0.04 = 1.64s Put this into the equation: Average speed of trolley car (m/s) = Distance travelled (m) � Time Taken (s) 1m � 1.64s = 0.610m/s Results of experiment Breaking Distance and Time: (X = Anomalous Result) Mass of Breaking Force (g) Results 1 Results 2 Result 3 Average Distance Travelled (mm) Time (s) Distance Travelled (mm) Time (s) Distance Travelled (mm) Time (s) Distance Travelled (mm) Time (s) 100 835 1.80 841 1.82 - - 838.0 1.810 110 631 1.61 633 1.66 - - 632.0 1.635 120 523 1.39 520 1.38 - - 521.5 1.385 130 440 1.33 438 1.26 - - 439.0 1.295 140 350 1.16 354 1.21 - - 352.0 1.185 150 295 1.06 301 1.12 - - 298.0 1.090 160 210 ...read more.

Conclusion

However, I don't believe that they are part of a new trend in this investigation, but if I was to change a different independent variable then they might be. I believe our results were accurate enough for this investigation to provide reliable, usable results for my analysis and conclusion. All my results seem to lie just next to or on the line of best fit drawn on the graphs and this has help me produce a firm, well supported conclusion. But, as I said in the conclusion we can only draw an almost inversely proportional graph, unless we measured everything to precision using expensive 100% accurate equipment, but there is no need for this. Maybe if we followed this investigation up that could be looked into and added to the method. I could also used data login techniques to get much more accurate times by using sensor to tell when the vehicle passes the braking point and how long after it takes for it to stop. I could carry out the experiment again using a different method to get the same results. Instead of using pullies and weights on strings attached to the trolley car, I could attach a piece of flat rope and thread it through a friction block with different mass's on it to add more or less friction to the vehicle to stop it. Here is a diagram of the experiment: - From this, I would be able to get the same results that I have achieved from the method I have carried out for this investigation and could compare them to make sure this is true. I could also concentrate on working out just one result of this experiment, i.e.: - de-acceleration, energy used to stop the vehicle or the distance the vehicle travels. By doing this I could extend my experiment and find out a bigger range of results to support the conclusion even more so. I got my research from the Physics GCSE textbook, past preliminary work and class work note in my exercise book. ...read more.

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