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Find out the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction of limestone with hydrochloric acid.

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AIM In this investigation my aim is to find out the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction of limestone with hydrochloric acid. Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric Acid --> Carbon Dioxide + Calcium Chloride (Limestone) + Water CaCO3 + 2HCL --> CO2 + CaCl2 + H2O VARIABLE 1. Temperature: When the temperature is increased, the particles all move more quickly. But if they're moving quickly, they're going to have more collisions. 2. Concentration: If the solution is made more concentrated it means there are more particles of reactant knocking about between water molecules, which makes collisions between important particles more likely. In a gas, increasing the pressure means the molecules are more squashed up together so there are going to be more collisions. 3. Surface Area If one of the reactants is a solid then breaking it up into smaller pieces will increase its surface area. This means the particles around it in the solution will have more area to work on so there'll be more useful collisions. 4. Catalyst A Catalyst works by giving the reacting particles a surface to stick to where they can bump into each other. This obviously increases the number of collisions as well. PREDICTION In my prediction, I predict that the higher the concentration of Hydrochloric Acid (HCL) the faster the reaction will be. However if I decrease the concentration of hydrochloric acid the reaction will be slower. ...read more.


The calcium carbonates chips will be weighed to approximately the same weight. The different amounts of concentration will be pressured using a cylinder and placed in the beaker. The calcium carbonate chips will be placed in the beaker. The concentration solution will then be added to the test tube. Immediately after that the rubber bung will be placed in the test tube and the end of the delivery tube will be placed in the bowl inside the cylinder. The amount of carbon dioxide released will be noted at different intervals of times. Here is an example of how my results table would look like: % Concentration Volume Of Carbon Dioxide Produced ml per Times/s 20 40 60 80 100 100 80 60 40 20 DIAGRAM The diagram shows how the experiment looked like METHOD There will be five different set of concentration. There will be two sets of results to ensure accuracy; an average will be worked out. The concentration solution should be added to the test tube containing the calcium chips. Immediately the bung will be placed in the test tube. As carbon dioxide is released, the water in the measuring cylinder should decrease. This process shall be carried out another four times using the different concentrations. The experiment will then be corned out again for a second set of results from there a table can be worked out to show the average. ...read more.


Gas Syringe Beaker Hydrochloric Acid Calcium Carbonate chip Concentration The diagram shows how the experiment would have looked by using a Gas Syringe The results have been slightly affected by the method. Overall the experiment worked out fairly well as the experiment results were reliable enough to support my predictions. The inaccurate results could have been caused by impurities in the water. Although distilled water was used. The distilled water could still have been contaminated. A more accurate scale could have been used to measure my calcium carbonate chips. During the experiment the Calcium Carbonate chips were weighed by using a weighing scale that measured in grams. A measuring cylinder, which measured in decimal places but still in grams, would have been sufficient. In order to extend this to work I could have carried out the same experiment but also monitored the temperature of the concentration. All other factors were maintained which may have influenced my results. However to extend this experiment it would be interesting to carry out the experiment again using another factor also. On the whole I would consider that my experiment was accurate enough to which a conclusion could be drawn. However the results were not as accurate as I had expected to make good judgements. To see if there were any differences or similarities. There are many reasons why this could have been. Although I could have had my concentrations of hydrochloric acid solution go up units of 10 instead of units of 20, also I should take more readings and averages. This would have been easier to see visible patterns or even changes in my results. ...read more.

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