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Find out the heat of combustion in the five fuels; Methanol, Ethanol, Propanol, Butanol, Pentanol, All of these alcohols are apart of the Hydrocarbon chain.

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Introduction

Investigating Fuels. Aim; To find out the heat of combustion in the five fuels; Methanol, Ethanol, Propanol, Butanol, Pentanol, All of these alcohols are apart of the Hydrocarbon chain. Apparatus; I will need the following to carry out my investigation for the Experiment; Top pan balance - To measure the weight of the fuel. Clamp Stand - To hold the boiling tube above the crucible. Boiling tube - To hold 30 cubic centimetres of water in. Heat proof mat - So the Bunsen burner doesn't burn the table. Bunsen burner - I need the flame to light the taper. Measuring cylinder - To measure 30cc of water in. Mineral wool - So the taper can light the fuel easier. A stop clock - To time how long the fuel will burn. Taper - To light the fuel by using the flame from the Bunsen burner. Ruler - To measure the distance from the crucible to the boiling tube. Crucible - To carry the mineral wool and fuel in it. Diagram; Plan; First of all, I will set the clamp stand 3.5cm vertically higher then the crucible which then I put some mineral wool in and 30 drops of the fuel in. After that I am going to weigh the crucible making sure there is no other liquid or any other substances on the weigher, so I don't do not get any anomalous results. After I have recorded the weight I am going to place the crucible directly under the boiling tube, like shown in the diagram, and then I am going to pour 30 cubic centimetres into the measuring cylinder. ...read more.

Middle

* Type of alcohol used. Preliminary Investigation; In the preliminary investigation we filled the boiling tube up with 30cc's of water, and then we put 10 drops of ethanol in the crucible and weighed it. I recorded the weight of it at 11.72 grams. We then took the temperature of the water at 24 C in the boiling tube. Then we set the fuel alight by using the taper to catch the flame from the Bunsen burner. We then waited for the fuel to burn out, when it did eventually burn out we recorded the temperature straight away at 30 C. That's a 6 C raise. Then we weighed the crucible again, this time weighing 11.56 after we burnt the fuel in it. So to work out the heat combustion of the five fuels I have to do the calculations below; 11.72 11.56 - 00.16 = mass of Ethanol. Mass of water x heat capacity x temperature rise 30 grams 4.2 6 C = 756 joules = in how much heat was transferred. For 1 gram; Fuels Mass of Fuel Temp of water beg. Temp difference Water Cubic cm Mass of fuel .end. Water temp end. Methanol 13.09gr 25 C 10 C 30cc 12.50gr 35 C Ethanol 13.08gr 23 C 11 1/2 C 30cc 12.65gr 34 C Propanol 13.17gr 26 C 12 C 30cc 12.36gr 38 C Butanol 12.48gr 25 1/2 C 19 1/2 C 30cc 12.02gr 45 C Pentanol 13.83gr 23 1/2 C 25 C 30cc 13.01gr 49 1/2 C 4725j is the answer for how much energy 1 gram gives off. ...read more.

Conclusion

Also, Methanol had the lowest amount of heat energy produced, just as I had predicted. So, I conclude that the Pentanol gave out the most heat energy out of the alcohols. I had investigated was Pentane, and the least efficient was Methanol. The reason why the pentanol was the fuel to give out the most heat energy was because, it had the most amount of chemical bonds so it took more energy to break the bonds up, therefore, giving out the heat energy. Below is a table of how many carbons are in each fuel; Fuel No Of carbons Methanol 1 Ethanol 2 Propanol 3 Butanol 4 Pentanol 5 Evaluation; This experiment has gone quite well. My prediction was correct. However, I could have done certain things to make my results more accurate. Firstly I would have made my experiment more accurate if I had a simple draft screen to block any unnecessary wind or breezes from cooling down the boiling tube while the experiment is going on. I did not get a clear anomalous result because there wasn't a very strong wind but just a mild one. Also because of the other students moving and using their Bunsen burners, that could have either cooled down my experiment or heated it up more. I was lucky not to get a big anomalous result, but instead I got little anomaly. A problem I kept on having during my experiment was that the crucible got to hot to pick up, I dropped it 2 or 3 times. That could have caused fuel to spill out. I overcame the problem by picking the crucible up with several paper towels. ...read more.

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