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Find out the rates of reactions of magnesium with different concentrations of hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Aim: the aim of the investigation is to find out the rates of reactions of magnesium with different concentrations of hydrochloric acid. Prediction: I predict that the magnesium will displace hydrogen, as magnesium is more reactive (higher in the reactivity series) than hydrogen (lower in the reactivity series). This in turn will form magnesium chloride. But the different concentrations of acid will affect the speed of the reactions. The higher the concentration the more particles of acid there are, causing them to collide more frequently than the lower concentration, which has less particles of acid. Concluding that the higher concentration will collide with the substance more often, making the reaction faster. Also that the lower concentration will collide with the substance less often, making the reaction slower, than the higher one. The same idea of "it is quicker to dig a hole with 10 men than 1 man digging it by himself" can be put to this. Magnesium + Hydrochloric Acid Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2 The above shows us that each magnesium atom reacts with 2 molecules of hydrochloric acid and this reaction forms 1 particle of magnesium chloride and 1 molecule of hydrogen. This means that the reaction needs at least 1 magnesium atom and 2 molecules of hydrochloric for the reaction to take place. ...read more.

Middle

We can see that magnesium is directly related to how much hydrogen gas is produced. I can find out how much hydrogen gas will be produced, if I know how many grams of magnesium there are, by using proportion. Let's assume that I used a strip of magnesium weighing 0.03 g If so, 0.03 g magnesium will produce (0.03/24) x 24,000 cm3 of hydrogen = 30 cm3 hydrogen To calculate how much of magnesium and hydrochloric acid I will use in the experiment I need to look at the equation above. As hydrochloric acid is not directly related to how much hydrogen gas an excess amount can be used, more than is needed for the magnesium fully react with it. But this amount must be kept the same thought out the experiment for each. For example, 3mls of each concentration of acid. The amount of magnesium is directly related to the amount of hydrogen produced, so this needs to be able to react fully with the acid it is put in. Preliminary Results: I have decided to use 3mls of acid in the first experiment and 10mls in the second. I will keep the magnesium constant though out both experiments, 1cm. These measurements of the reactants will give some good results. I have worked out that the magnesium will fully reacted with both amounts of acid. ...read more.

Conclusion

This causes the gas to compress, meaning the syringe doesn't give an accurate measurement. There are more accurate ways of measuring gas but the school doesn't have the equipment to do it more accurately. Other methods which I could have conducted, which would have helped me support my conclusion, included: 1. Measuring the temperature of the reactions as it happens. Measurements could be taken, for example, every 30 seconds. These results will then be plotted on to a line graph, with each different mole having different coloured line; this will give a clear indication to each concentration. These results will tell us how fast the reaction is happening and how each one differs from the next. Also the time of the reaction would be recorded in line with each temperature taken, e.g. 30sec = 10c, 60sec = 12c, and so on. Further work: * I could do is to the experiment again but with different acids and see what kind of results I get. I could compare each set of acid results to find out which reacts the fastest with magnesium. * Repeat the experiment but with different reactants. I could also use the less reactive metals of the reactivity series (zinc, aluminium, iron and lead) that way I could find the initial rate of reaction at 5 seconds for the higher concentrations of acid like 3.0M or 3.5M and I could find there relative activity. Anish Patel Rates of Reaction ...read more.

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