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Find out what factors affect the rate of reaction between rennin and milk.

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RENNIN BIOLOGY COURSEWORK YEAR 11 BY SHERYAR MAJID Introduction: Rennin is a proteolytic enzyme and is characteristically found in the gastric juices of young mammals. It is one of only two enzymes (the other being pepsin) to be produced in the stomach. Rennin is secreted in an inactive form, pro-rennin, which is activated by the hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice. Rennin catalyses the conversion of the protein of milk, caseinogen, into paracasein, which is precipitated in the stomach as a calcium salt. The precipitated paracasein forms a firm curd in the stomach, which ensures that milk stays for some time in the stomach so that it becomes exposed to the actions of the proteolytic enzymes and the acid in the gastric juice. (REFERENCES: For my research, I used 'Letts Study Guide' by Glenn and Susan Toole and 'Biology of the Mammal' by P. Catherine and Arthur G. Clegg.) Aim: To find out what factors affect the rate of reaction between rennin and milk. Apparatus: 8 test tubes, test tube rack, 4 milk types (Soya, 1/2 fat fresh, full fat UHT), 4 different concentrations of enzyme, stopwatch. ...read more.


Graph Of Prediction: The graph shows how the rate of reaction will be directly proportional to concentration up to the limiting point. Observation And Analysis: Table Of Results: Graph Of Results: Evaluation Conclusion: The more sugar in the solution the smaller the chip because instead of the water surrounding being the higher concentration it was the chip's water content that was the higher in water levels meaning that the water flowed out of the chip instead of it flowing in making the chip shrink. Where there was no sugar in the surrounding water (i.e. 0 molar) the chip had the lower concentration of water compared to it's surroundings which was 100% water meaning that the water flowed into the chip allowing it to grow larger and heavier. The term used to describe this is "osmosis". Osmosis is described as "The passing of water from a high level of concentration to a low level of concentration through a semi-permeable membrane (a.k.a. partially permeable membrane and selective membrane)". The membrane involved in osmosis can control lots of harmful chemicals from entering but it has no control over the entrance and exit of water, thus allowing osmosis to take place when wanted but also when not. ...read more.


Further Experiments: Experiments can be done using the same method for this experiment except using a single cell instead of a chip to see how much a cell changes in different amounts of solute. The chip can also be replaced by another item such as bits of carrot or rice. The solute can be changed to see how much of a difference that makes. Also the solvent can be changed i.e. change the water with another liquid. A coloured light could be used to see if and how osmosis is affected. The temperature could be controlled to see how the rate of osmosis changes. Also instead of using a healthy potato a potato that does not have a high water content could be used to see if it becomes healthy in 100% water. The amount of fluid can also be changed to cover only part of the chip. The chip can have slits put in it and then have the experiment carried out on it to see whether osmosis changes. There are more experiments where the amount of air is controlled as well as the starting amount of humidity. Rennin Biology Coursework Sheryar Majid 10Q September 2000 Mrs Tyler 1 Page ...read more.

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