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Find out whether the rate of reaction changes with certain types of effects, such as temperature and concentration.

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Introduction

Rate of Reaction Coursework Aim: My aim for this experiment is to find out whether the rate of reaction changes with certain types of effects, such as temperature and concentration. Prediction: Through my preliminary experiment I predict that in this experiment, where the temperature is varied, the rate of reaction will increase as the temperature increases. This can be identified by relating to the collision theory. As you can see from the picture below, in the first box the particles of both, the Hydrochloric acid and Thiosulphate, move continuously. In the second box you can see that they have reacted, mainly because there was enough energy to provide a collision. However the third box shows the results of what may happen that there would be no reaction if there were no energy from the particles. When the temperature is increased, the particles will have more energy and therefore move faster. This means that there is more possibility that they'll collide more often and with more energy. Particles with more energy are more likely to overcome the activation energy barrier to reaction and therefore react successfully. In order for particles to react with one another, they must collide with each other and the collision must have energy. To successfully complete my experiment I will vary the temperature by simply using the water tube to increase or decrease the temperature by adding more cold water or more hot water. Scientific Knowledge: The reason for my prediction is that when the temperature is increased the rate of reaction will also increase. This is mainly because the molecules will collide more often and with greater energy and will be more likely to react because their bonds will break. I know this fact through my understanding of the collision theory. I also know that Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid are soluble in water, so the concentration of either can be changed. ...read more.

Middle

Collisions between reacting particles are therefore more likely to occur. T his could be proven with the 'Collision Theory'. This theory states that in order for a reaction to occur particles have to collide with each other. Only a small percent result in a reaction. This is due to the energy barrier to overcome. Only particles with enough energy to overcome the barrier will react after colliding. The minimum energy that a particle must have to overcome the barrier is called the 'Activation Energy' (or Ea). The activation energy shows that the larger activation energy is the slower rate of reaction, therefore the smaller activation energy the faster the rate of reaction. The size of this activation energy is different for different reactions, the graph plotting the average curved line of best fit results shows that the difference of rate between increasing temperature excluding the anomalies - 30oC and 20oC, are all close as they increase in steps of 3-4 seconds. However, there is a huge gap between the 40oC and 30oC, where the time taken increased by 9 seconds. To understand this so that it could make more sense, you must refer to the collision theory and the 'Activation Energy' theory (above). Here are the results that I obtained which produced a curved line of best fit: Average Time: 20oC - 34.98seconds 30oC - 23.98seconds, 40oC - 14.90seconds, 50oC - 11.63seconds, 60oC - 8.14seconds, The kinetic theory explains that when particles are moving that is an increase in temperature that causes a substance to melt. As the temperature is increased the particles vibrate more vigorously, but they do not suddenly vibrate far more vigorously when a substance melts. What happens is that the vibration reaches a critical point that allows the particles to break free of their fixed positions, therefore breaks their bond. Therefore this tells us that the greater the temperature the greater the energy in the particle is. ...read more.

Conclusion

Therefore in total I have produced three graphs, one shows the results and curve of best fit using my original time results, while the other shows my estimated line of best fit using my inversely proportional (1 divide by time taken) results, and lastly the third graph shows the accurate line of best fit, which I found using the equation, where my working out could be wrong. Also another thing I did was arranging my graph in a way that the y-axis recorded the time taken while the x-axis had the temperature recorded on it. This is because the time was dependent the value and temperature was the independent value. The things that I did that will make my graph look different, is that I used the 'average y' and plotted it onto my graph and used the '0' point on the graph as a starting point, rather than working out the 'C' (intercept on the axis) in the equation: 'y=mx=c' (y and x are both averages). I did this because the figure of 'C' was not meant to be over 0 or below, whereas with my working out gave me an answer over 50, which indicated to me that it was wrong. However I believe that using that equation to get an accurate line of best fit would help improve the investigation. I did that but was unable to get the expected results. Therefore because it was wrong I will refer to both my other graphs within my investigation. I think that my evidence is reliable because it is supported by my preliminary experiment and my prediction. Alongside my evidence I think that my results are reliable for the same reasons, and are also supported by my conclusion. Of course there are ways in which I could improve my experiment, which involve the use of other technique that give accurate results. These techniques are the ways you could do this experiment as well. Mohamed Sudi 11Y4 ...read more.

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