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Find out which of five chosen fuels; Ethanol, Propan-1-ol, Butan-1-ol, Hexan-1-ol and Octan-1-ol gives out the most heat energy.

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Introduction

An experiment involving five fuels, to see which fuels contain most energy. Aim: To find out which of five chosen fuels; Ethanol, Propan-1-ol, Butan-1-ol, Hexan-1-ol and Octan-1-ol gives out the most heat energy. Introduction: A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms brought about by a sharing of electrons between to atoms or a complete transfer of electrons. There are three types of chemical bonds: Ionic, Covalent and Polar covalent. In addition chemists often recognize another type of bond called a hydrogen bond. Ionic bonds arise from elements with low electro negativity (almost empty outer shells) reacting with elements with high electro negativity (mostly full outer shells). In this case there is a complete transfer of electrons. Covalent bonds involve a complete sharing of electrons and occur most commonly between atoms that have partially filled outer shells or energy levels. Thus if the atoms are similar in negativity then the electrons will be shared. These bonds are in between covalent and ionic bonds in that the atoms share electrons but the electrons spend more of their time around on atom versus the others in the compound. ...read more.

Middle

We will carry out the experiment for two minutes. When we start the stop clock, we will put the lighted fuel burner underneath the water filled test tube. We will stop the stop clock and remove the burner. We will take the temperature of the water again to take note of the temperature change. We will use these noted figures for chemical equations (taken into more consideration with results) We will need to take these points into consideration to make the experiment a fair test: 1) keep the amount of water constant 2) keep the height from the bottom of the test tube to the top of the fuel burner constant 3) keep wind levels are the same 4) keep the wick length the same We also had to take some safety regulations into consideration. For the girls hair had to be tied back. As we were using fuel burners, we had to stand up. Also, if something were to break, we were to tell the teacher straight away. Diagram: Results: Start finish temp average start finish mass average Fuel Temp(�C) ...read more.

Conclusion

0.63 � 46 = 0.014 m = 0.77 � 60 = 0.013 m = 0.35 � 74 = 0.005 m = 0.26 � 102 = 0.003 m = 0.18 � 130 = 0.001 Energy given out Number of moles KJ/mole Moles Ethanol 2062.412 0.014 147 46 Propan-1-ol 3302.2 0.013 254 60 Butan-1-ol 1142.812 0.005 228 74 Hexan-1-ol 1003.2 0.003 334 102 Octan-1-ol 1477.212 0.001 1477 130 Conclusion: My results prove that my prediction was correct. The higher the number of moles, the more energy given out. Evaluation: I should mention that I had to remove one line of results (highlighted above) as the mass change was an anomaly. I took these results out as I thought it would bring down my results. One of the days, when we were doing the experiment, we had to open the windows. We decided to use a wind shield to stop wind affecting the experiment. If we were to repeat the experiment, we would protect the flame from every direction so the heat loss would be less. e.g. Before After Graph: A graph to show the number of moles a fuel has compared to KJ/mole ??????????? ...read more.

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