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# Find the accurate concentration of a solution of sulphuric acid acid of which concentration is thought to be between 0.05 and 0.15moldm-3

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Introduction

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this assignment is to find the accurate concentration of a solution of sulphuric acid acid of which concentration is thought to be between 0.05 and 0.15moldm-3 . I am provided with solid anhydrous sodium carbonate and a range of indicators. I have to plan and carry out an experiment to determine the accurate concentration of the sulphuric acid in order to meet the requirement for the assessment of my experimental skills in unit 2852/02 courswork. BASIC PLAN: * I will make a standard solution of sodium carbonate and calculate its concentration. * After making the sodium carbonate solution of known concentration, I will use it to determine the concentration of the sulphuric acid. This will be possible through an acid-alkali titration. Sodium hydroxide is a weak alkali and will neutralise the acid in the reaction to produce salt, water and carbon dioxide. The data obtained from this quantitaive analyses will then be used to calculate the concentration of the sulphuric acid. MAKING A STANDARD SOLUTION OF SODIUM CARBONATE APPARATUS: * Safety spectacles * Weighing bottle * Spatula * Solid anhydrous sodium carbonate * A balance capable of weighing to within 0.01g * A beaker, 250cm3 * Wash bottle of distilled water * Stirring rod with rubber end * Volumetric flas with stopper and labe, 250cm3 * Dropping pipette * Mortar and pestle. REACTING QUANITITES: Na2CO3(s) + H2SO4(aq) Na2SO4 (s) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) 1 : 1 1 mole : 1mole In the titration, I will be using a 25cm3 pipette therefore the volume of the Na2CO3 used will be 25cm3. From the chemical equation above, it can be seen that the stiochometry of the reaction is 1:1, therefore the volume of the H2SO4 will also be aimed at 25.00cm3 . ...read more.

Middle

8. I will repeat steps 5, and 7 at least twice more and keep flasks for comparison. RESULT TABLE: Pipette solution Sodium carbonate moldm-3 25 cm3 Burette solution Sulphuric acid moldm-3 Indicator Methyl orange Trial 1 2 3 4 Burette readings Final Initial Volume used (titre)/cm3 Mean titre/cm3 CALCULATIONS: I will use the data obtained from the titration to calculate the concentration of the sulphuric acid. Knowing the average titre, volume and concentration of the sodium carbonate, I will calculate the number of moles of sodium hydroxide and use it to find the concentration of the sulphuric acid. Chemical/ Procedure Hazard Source of advice Strategy to reduce risk Disposal Sodium carbonate Irritant Hazcards Use lab coat and safety glasses Rinse area of spillage with water and remove contaminated clothing Sulphuric acid 0.05-0.15 moldm-3 Minimal hazard. It is of low concentration. Hazcards Use lab coat and safety glasses Rinse area of spillage with water and remove contaminated clothing Methyl orange Minimal hazard. Stains Use lab coat and safety glasses. Use dilute solution. Do not swallow. Rinse area of spillage with water and remove contaminated clothing. If swallowed, rinse mouth with plenty of water. Running the burette tap Overshooting Tutor Always turn the tap with the left hand and swirl with the right. If overshoot, repeat titration. Fixing a pipette into a pipette filler Breaking/ stabbing Tutor/ Common sense Always hold the pipette vertically close to the open end and not the tip. If broken, do not touch, use parker and brush to pack into the broken glass container. If stabbed, seek medical advice. Glass ware Breaking /stabbing Common sense Use proper procedure If broken, do not touch, use parker and brush to pack into the broken glass container. ...read more.

Conclusion

* The conical flask needs to be thoroughly rinsed with distilled water in between titrations. This will remove any solution from the previous titration and not affect the concentration of the solution in which it is to contain, as the concentration of the solution is already known. * Using a white piece of paper makes it easy to read off the volumes from the burette. As the sulphuric acid is aqueous and transparent, so is the burette. This makes it difficult to read the volume and can affect the degree of accuracy in which the volume is read to. A lower volume gives a lower result. The mass of sodium carbonate (between 1.33-3.98g) I used in making the standard solution of sodium carbonate was ideal because it was calculated theoretically taking into consideration the given concentration of sulphuric acid (between 0.05-0.15moldm3). The volume of sodium carbonate used in the titration (25cm3) was appropriate because using a 25cm3 pipette gives more accurate and reliable result than using a pipette with a greater volume capacity. Using a pipette of volume less than 25cm3 would not make available enough solution for the titration and I would be working with very small values that can cause errors. The 25cm3 pipette I used is not too small or too big, it is just reliable. Moreover, this is used in most standard titrations. Making the solution of sodium carbonate to a volume of 250cm3 in a volumetric flask made available enough solution in case I overshoot pass the end-point and need to repeat the titration. This also ensures that there is enough solution to repeat titrations so that different values of titre will be collected and the average of them taken. This ensures accuracy. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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