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Find the exact concentration of sulphuric acid in a solution through a titration.

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Introduction

Salters Chemistry coursework Aim: To find the exact concentration of sulphuric acid in a solution through a titration. The titration is between sulphuric acid and sodium carbonate has to be in liquid for in order to carry out the experiment so it is dissolved into distilled water to a concentration of 0.1 mol dm� Introduction- During the extraction of a metal from its ore, sulphuric dioxide is often produced. This is converted to sulphuric acid and is sold as a useful by-product. I am going to be given a sample of sulphuric acid, which is thought to have a concentration between 0.05 and 0.15-mol dm�. The purpose of this experiment is to find the accurate concentration of the sulphuric acid. I will do this by carrying out a titration between sulphuric acid and sodium carbonate solution. Therefore this is an acid-alkali titration (which is the determination of concentration by adding measured amounts of standard reagents to a known volume until the end point is reached). * Sulphuric acid is considered a strong acid, as it is completely in the form of ions in dilute solution. * Sodium carbonate is a weak alkali as it only partially forms ions in dilute solution. ...read more.

Middle

Keep the flow rapid till the colour changes to a lighter red, but before this turn the stopcock slightly horizontal as the acid comes out drop by drop. 12. Read off the value on the burette find out the volume of sulphuric acid needed to react with sodium carbonate. 13. Carry out the titrations Until you have recorded three results within 0.1cm� CONTROL VARIABLES Ensure the same sodium carbonate solution and sulphuric acid batch is used for all titration to ensure a fair test and the results will be accurate and reliable. Try to carry out the titrations on the same day to ensure there isn't a temperature change and that they are done in one uniform temperature. If the temperature is increased, the liquid will expand making the test inaccurate. RISK ASSESMENT * Wear safety goggles to prevent acid from entering the eye * Stools must be tucked underneath the table ensure bags are out of the way to prevent people from tripping * Long hair should be tied back * Ensure you are standing throughout the experiment so you are able to quickly move out of the way in case of spillages etc. ...read more.

Conclusion

It was important to keep a specific colour in mind, and stop the titration when the colour was reached. Fortunately I kept the colour change point constant, although this could have been a cause of any anomalies. To improve the investigation a pH metre can be used instead of using a pH indicator to see when neutralisation occurs. This would eliminate the most significant source of error, which is largely due to human error. I could have further improved the experiment by checking the pipette filler for air gaps. Also using a magnetic stirrer would have ensured all the sodium carbonate was completely dissolved. I could have used more accurate scale -analytical balance which measure to 0.0001g so it has a high degree of precision Percentage error I am going to work out the percentage error using the following equation: (True value- experimental value) � 100 True value Quantity measured Percentage error Mass of sodium carbonate using balance (0.05�100)/2.65=0.19% Volume of distilled water using volumetric flask (0.5�100)/250=0.2% Transferring sodium carbonate using pipette filler (0.5�100)/25=2% Carrying out titration using a burette (0.005�100)/28.43=0.02% (to 2.s.f) In order to minimise measurements errors larger quantities of all solution could be used although concentration would remain the same. For example 250 cm� graduated flask 0.2 � 100 = 0.08% 250 1 dm� flask 0.2 �100 = 0.02% 1000 Saher Ali 1 ...read more.

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