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Find the lowest concentration of Copper (II) Sulphate needed to bring about full denaturation of egg albumen.

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Introduction

Practical examination (Part A): Planning exercise Candidate Name: Ahmed Rashid Centre number: 17543 Candidate number: 7893 Aim: To find the lowest concentration of Copper (II) Sulphate needed to bring about full denaturation of egg albumen. Introduction: A protein's structure is an exact thing and its precise shape is crucial to its function. Protein structure has several layers of organisation: The primary structure is the amino acid sequence. Different proteins have difference sequences. The linear polymer folds into larger secondary structures, for example alpha helices and beta sheets. The tertiary structure is the interaction of secondary structures. Quaternary structures are interaction of several protein polymers. Different bonds, in particular hydrogen bonds, di-sulphide bridges, ionic bonds and hydrophobic interactions, maintain the structure. Denaturation occurs when these bonds are disrupted, either by increased kinetic energy caused by a temperature rise, different pH changes, which alter the ionic charge of the groups and so disrupt the ionic bonds. Egg albumen is a globular protein that is held together as usual, by the interactions between R groups. ...read more.

Middle

that can be used to design a further experiment more accurately and helped decide which concentrations to test. I predict that as the concentration of CuSO4 increases the precipitate will become thicker and so will absorb more light and hence the % light transmission will be less. Apparatus: * Egg albumen (20cm3) * 0.1 mol-dm3 Copper (II) Sulphate solution (20cm3) * 8 Boiling tubes, test tubes and cuvettes. * Colorimeter with filter * Distilled water (80cm3) * 10cm3 plastic syringes * Dropping pipette * Glass marker pen Method: * Eight boiling tubes will be set up in a rack. In the first, will be added 2cm3 of 0.1 mol-dm3 CuSO4 solution and in the last 2cm3 of distilled water, using a plastic 10cm3 syringe. * In the remaining test tubes, CuSO4 and distilled water will be added as in the amounts given in the table below, to give the different concentrations of Copper (II) Sulphate shown in the last column. Amount of CuSO4 added (cm3) Amount of distilled water added (cm3) ...read more.

Conclusion

"http://www.jyhoriba.co.uk/glen/photo_research/images" As described earlier, this will be the case, and so the accuracy of the colorimeter should be very high. All other equipment has been chosen to increase precision. E.g. a larger syringe may have made it easier to obtain more solution when high amounts are involved but the same one is used throughout as it is smaller and the readings are closer together. Reliability - The experiment is to be conducted three times, with the mean results calculated overall to use in a graph for interpretation. This way, any significant differences between results can also be investigated. The results will be recorded in a table as below: Concentration of CuSO4 solution (mol-dm3) Light transmission of CuSO4 and egg albumen (%) 1 2 3 0.1 0.05 0.025 0.02 0.0125 0.01 0.00625 0.00 When the average figures are calculated they will be presented in a graph as shown below. From this graph, we will be in a position to determine the lowest concentration needed to fully denature the egg albumen, by reading off the graph from left to right, to the point at which the transmission falls to meet the x axis, and hence the lowest concentration needed for full denaturation. ...read more.

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