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Find the rate of reaction between the sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Rates of reaction Aim: To find the rate of reaction between the sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. Introduction A reaction takes place when two substances are chemically combined. The rate of a reaction tells us how quickly a reaction happens. It is important for people in the industry to know how fast a reaction goes. They have to know exactly how much of their product they have to make each hour day or week. We can find a rate of a reaction by actually doing the experiments. During a reaction we can measure how much reactant is used up in a certain time. On the other hand we might choose to measure how much product is formed in a certain time. Reactions can be fast or they can be slow. Rapid chemical reactions for example are explosions, fireworks, lightening a match, etc. In fact most combustion reactions last only a few seconds. Slow reactions on the other hand are like copper roof reacting in air which takes many years, rusting will take a few months depending on the size of the object. Some chemical reactions give out heat energy; such reactions are called exothermic e.g. in bond forming of magnesium oxide. In other reactions heat energy is taken in or supplied, such reactions are called endothermic reactions. The supplied energy breaks the existing bonds. All reactions require a minimum amount of energy which is needed by reacting particles for the reactions to occur is known as activation energy. ...read more.

Middle

8. Decrease the sodium thiosulphate by 10ml using the measuring cylinder. 9. Measure out 10ml of distilled water using a third labelled measuring cylinder. Use this to dilute the 60ml of sodium thiosulphate. Pour this into the conical flask. 10. Get the stop clock ready. 11. Add the 10ml of hydrochloric acid to the diluted sodium thiosulphate and record the time taken for the cross to disappear. 12. For the following third, fourth and fifth experiments follow the same procedure. For each test decrease the sodium thiosulphate by 10ml and increase the distilled water by 10ml. 13. Therefore the final experiment will have a ratio of 1:6, 1 sodium thiosulphate : 6 distilled water. 14. The volume of hydrochloric acid will be kept constant in all experiments to 10ml. 15. Record the time taken in all experiments accurately for the cross to disappear. 16. Repeat all seven experiments using the same concentrations and volumes of the reactants, at least two or three times. This should be done as a cheque for the results, in order to prove its accuracy. 17. Average time taken for the experiments of the same dilution should be calculated and recorded. The rate should also be calculated using the average time as follows: Rate = 1 Average time 18. All results should be recorded accurately in a suitable and clear table. The experiment Fair test * Use the same apparatus and materials for the experiments. * Hydrochloric acid should be measured out accurately using the labelled measuring cylinder to 10ml for each experiment. ...read more.

Conclusion

The pipettes could have been used instead of measuring with your measuring cylinders, to measure the volume of 10ml of hydrochloric acid. Besides, if the computer software is available the results can be monitored electronically and seen on a computer screen. However all the evidence collected proved to be reliable and sufficient to support the conclusion made. The reciprocal rate calculated also seemed to be correct. As far as further work is concerned other experiments using acids and metals like magnesium, lead, copper etc. can be investigated relating to any other factors which affect the rate of reaction. This further work can also be conducted by physically observing the fizzing of the bubbles of hydrogen gas giving out when different concentrations of acid are added for magnesium. A balloon can be used to collect the gas. Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid Magnesium chloride + Hydrogen Mg (s) + 2HCL (aq) MgCL2 (aq) + H2 (g) For the investigation conducted instead of factor of concentration the temperature can be varied. It can start from 20oC increasing in 10's up to 60oC. if this is done the following results will be appropriate: Temperature oC Time for the cross to disappear 20 280 30 132 40 60 50 33 60 18 The higher the temperature as seen in the background information provides more energy for more collisions. Hence the rate of reaction is faster. Factors like particles size and catalyst can also be investigated. Overall, the investigation conducted has been very interesting and much knowledge has been gained. Factors that affect the rate of reaction has been understood thoroughly. ?? ?? ?? ?? YATHURSAN DEVABALAN 11B1 RATES OF REACTIONS ...read more.

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