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# Finding our how much acid there is in a solution.

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Introduction

Finding our how much acid there is in a solution. Results table Titration Rough 1 2 3 Initial burette reading 0.00 cm3 11.00 cm3 0.00 cm3 11.10 cm3 Final burette reading 11.00 cm3 21.90 cm3 11.10 cm3 22.10 cm3 Titre 11.00 cm3 10.90 cm3 11.10 cm3 11.00 cm3 Average titre = 11.0 cm3 Equation of reaction: Na2CO3 (aq) + H2SO4 (aq) H2O (l) + CO2 (g) + Na2SO4 (aq) So, one mole of sulphuric acid reacts with one mole of sodium carbonate to form water, carbon dioxide and sodium sulphide. In the sodium carbonate solution there was 1.06g of sodium carbonate made up to volume of 100cm3 with distilled water. Na2CO3 Na = 23* 2 = 46g C = 12 * 1 = 12g O = 16* 3 = 48g +106g 1 mole of Na2CO3 = 106g We used 1.06 g in our solution, 1.06/106 = 0.01 moles so, 0.01 moles of Na2CO3 in 100cm3 In each experiment we use 10cm3, so this contains 0.001 moles of Na2CO3 Since we know that the volumes of the two solutions need to be approximately the same for the two solutions to react we know that the sulphuric acid must have approximately 0.001moles in 11cm3. ...read more.

Middle

If I were to repeat this experiment in perfect conditions I would devise a method using a form of 'light detector', which would give me a second opinion of when a colour change had occurred, so I don't use too much acid in my titrations. Percentage error can be calculated by: Precision error * 100 Actual reading Errors caused by equipment and glassware: ? Volumetric flask when filled correctly has a precision error of 0.2 cm3 so has a percentage error of 0.08% ? All burette readings should include 2 decimal places in which the second figure should be a 0 or 5. An error of one drop gives an error of 0.2% for each reading. ? A pipette delivers a percentage error of 0.063 cm3 or 0.24% ? A digital balance gives readings up to two decimal places this means the actual reading could be +/- 0.005g of the reading took. (0.005*100/1.06= 0.47) so the digital balance delivers a percentage error of 0.47%. It is important to repeat a titration several times to check that the results are reliable. After calculating the average titre, we should correct the value to one decimal place; in our case the average titre was 11.0 cm3 Quantity measured ...read more.

Conclusion

I could use a balance with a display of more than 2 decimal places. I could test that the sodium carbonate solution was correct before I carried on, I could also test the acid for inaccuracies there. I could practice my titration techniques in order to reduce human error in measuring out each substance correctly. My reading of the burette would become more accurate with practise. I could even use an indicator with a more distinctive colour change. A detailed new and improved way of carrying out this experiment would reduce the percentage error of my results by reducing the error caused by the main cause of error, human error and make the results obtained more accurate and reliable. Overall I do not believe my results to be completely inaccurate and I think they are reliable enough for what we are trying to discover in this experiment. I would have to increase the repetitions of my experiment to get a more reliable and accurate result. As previously stated there are ways and improvements in my procedure and technique to make my results as accurate as possible. ?? ?? ?? ?? Page 1 of 5 ...read more.

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