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Finding out how much acid there is in a solution.

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Introduction

Finding out how much acid there is in a solution The aim of this investigation is to find the concentration of dilute sulphuric acid using the technique of titration by reacting it with a known solution of sodium carbonate. One of the main properties of acid is that it turns litmus paper red, reacts with carbonates to give CO2 and is neutralised by bases. The general definition of an acid is that it is a substance, which donates H+ in a chemical reaction. The substance that accepts the H+ is a base. The reaction in which this happens is called acid-base reaction. Sodium carbonate and sulphuric acid react together and form sodium sulphate, carbon dioxide and water. This process is called is a neutralisation reaction. The equation for this reaction is: Sodium + Sulphuric Sodium + Water + Carbon Carbonate Acid Sulphate Dioxide Na2CO3 + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + CO2 + H2O 1 mole 1 mole so by balancing the equation we have found out that the ration between the acid and the alkali is 1:1. So the the amount of moles in sodium carbonate is the same as the sulphuric acid. In my experiment i will work out the volume of the acid needed to neutralise the alkali. ...read more.

Middle

* Distilled water I am going to use distilled water to make all my solutions and wash the apparatus. This is because the chlorine in the normal water may affect the experiment. PLAN * First I will weigh 2.65gm of sodium carbonate using a balance. I will transfer the sodium carbonate to a 250 cm3 of volumetric flask using a funnel. While pouring the powder I will make sure that I do not put all of it at one go, as this might block the funnel. Then add some distilled water to dissolve it. I will keep adding the water until it reaches the 2503 cm mark. I will then take 25 cm3 of the solutions, using a 25cm3 pipette, into a 100 cm3 conical flask. * After making the solution, I will put both the sodium carbonate and the sulphuric acid in to two different test tubes. I will add 3 drops of methyl orange into each of the test tube. The acid will turn into pink and the alkali will turn in to fluorescent orange. I will put both the test tubes in to the tube rack. This will help me to decide the end of point of the neutralisation. ...read more.

Conclusion

0 12.5 15 15 20 15 Initial burette reading (cm3) 19 33 36 35.4 40.6 35.5 Titre (cm3) 19 20.5 21 20.4 20.6 20.5 ANALYSING THE RESULTS After doing my experiment, I have got 6 sets of result. However 4 of my results are between 0.1. so I am going to take the average of the 4, and use it to work out the concentration. Average titre: (20.5 + 20.4 + 20.6 + 20.5) / 4 20.5 cm3 From my background research i have worked out that the ratio between sodium carbonate and the sulphuric acid is 1:1. This means that the number of moles in sodium carbonate is same as sulphuric acid. Working out the number of mole in Na2CO3: General formula, amount/mol = (concentration of solution/ mol dm-3) X (volume of solution/dm3) Volume used in the experiment: 25 cm3 = (25 / 1000) dm3 = 0.025 Concentration: 0.1 mol dm-3 Number of moles: 0.025 X 0.1 = 0.0025 mol working out the concentration of sulphuric acid: amount = 0.0025 mol volume = 20.5 cm3 = (20.5 / 1000) dm3 = 0.0205 dm3 concentration = 0.0025 / 0.0205 = 0.12 mol dm-3 i conclude that the concentration of the unknown sulphuric acid was 0.12 mol dm-3. ...read more.

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