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Finding out How Much Acid There is in a Solution

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Introduction

Finding out How Much Acid There is in a Solution During the extraction of a metal from its ore, sulphur dioxide is often produced. It is converted into Sulphuric (VI) acid and sold as a useful by-product. I shall be carrying out a titration between sodium carbonate, a weak alkali, and sulphuric acid, a strong acid, to calculate the concentration of the sulphuric acid. The sodium carbonate sample I shall be using is a solid. Solids cannot be titrated successfully, so I will turn it into a solution by adding distilled water to it. The distilled water has no adverse effects on the sodium carbonate. Na2CO3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) Na2SO4(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) Methyl orange is an acid-base indicator, which changes colour according to the hydrogen ion concentration of the solution to which it is added to. It 'indicates' the end point of the acid-base titration, and tests the acidity or alkalinity of the solution. I shall be using methyl orange as the indicator in my titration because, for a titration between a strong acid and a weak alkali, methyl orange works most effectively. HMe H + Me Red colourless Yellow From this titration, I can expect the solution to turn colourless. ...read more.

Middle

The end point of the titration is when you swirl the solution and it stays colourless. Close the tap. 18. Record the final burette reading. The difference between the first burette reading and the final burette reading is the volume of solution you have run out into the flask. This is your titre reading. 19. Record your results and calculate the average titre: Average titre = Total titre reading (cm�) (cm�) Number of titrations 20. Repeat this experiment as many times as you need until you get 3 results within 0.1 of each other. N.B All the apparatus should be thoroughly cleaned between each titration. Risk Assessment Safety glasses must be worn to protect the eyes from splash-back of any solution or sulphuric acid. In addition, a lab coat should be worn to protect clothes, hair should be tied back, broken skin should be covered with plasters and stools need to be safely tucked under desks. All the apparatus will be placed in the centre of the desk so that nothing is in danger of falling off the desk and breaking. If any equipment does break, it should be placed into the broken glass bin with a dustpan and brush, and the teacher should be notified. ...read more.

Conclusion

So the solution passed its colourless state and turned slightly purple or blue. This may have caused my titres to be larger. Also, the pipette may not have always fully emptied. Overall however, I think my results are relatively accurate and reliable, because I cleaned the equipment after each titration, I took measurements reading from the bottom of the meniscus, I used calibrated equipment, and the same batch of sulphuric acid and Na2CO3 solution every time. To improve my procedure I think I could carry out two rough titrations instead of the one. In this way, it would allow me to expect a value between the two. I would also label a bottle of methyl orange indicator and use that each time so that the concentration of it cannot vary, ensuring the titration results are more accurate. When emptying the contents of the pipette into the conical flask, I would allow the pipette to fully drain until the last drop by touching the side of the flask with the pipette. This ensures the full 25 cm� quantity is used each time. Before a titration I would ensure I shake the volumetric flask thoroughly so that the solution is of even concentration, making my experiment reliable and accurate. Nikki Wadhera 12T AS Chemistry Coursework - 1 - ...read more.

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