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Finding out how much acid there is in a solution.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

AS Chemistry coursework: Finding out how much acid there is in a solution AIM I will be given a sample of sulphuric (VI) acid, thought to have a concentration between 0.050 and 0.150mol dm-3, and I have to find the exact concentration. I have been provided with solid anhydrous sodium carbonate and a range of indicators. I will need to make up a standard solution of sodium carbonate, which I can then titrate with the acid. Knowing that the concentration of the acid is between 0.050 and 0.150mol dm-3, and from the equation below, a good concentration for the standard solution would be between the two, at 0.100mol dm-3. This is the equation of what will happen when the standard solution of sodium carbonate reacts with the sulphuric acid: H2SO4 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) --> Na2SO4 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O(l) Risk assessment Sulphuric (VI) acid - Very Corrosive - Dangerous with water - If swallowed wash out mouth with water - If it gets in eyes flood the eye with water for 10 minutes - if spilt, cover with mineral absorbent and scoop up and put in a bucket. Add anhydrous sodium carbonate and leave to react, and then add plenty of water. ...read more.

Middle

The result will be recorded, and the solution discarded. I will wash out the conical flask with distilled water, ready for the accurate titration. I will then re-fill the burette up to 0.00 with more sulphuric acid, using the funnel. I will add the acid to the alkali solution rapidly this time, until I am within 1 cm3 of the rough titre. From then I will add the acid drop by drop, swirling the conical flask in between each drop. I will repeat this procedure until I get 3 concordant results within 0.1cm3 of each other. The results will be presented in a chart showing starting point, end point, and titre. Then the mean titre will be calculated. Sources: * Experiment " find the number of moles of water of crystallisation in washing soda". This was a titration experiment, in which the standard solution was already made up. * Experiment " To find the solubility of calcium hydroxide in water by titration" In this I had to make up the standard solution and titrate. * Experiment EL 2.1 " How much iron is in a sample of an iron compound?" This involved making up a standard solution and titrating. * Chapter 1.5, Chemical Ideas - "Concentrations of solutions". ...read more.

Conclusion

If I did not invert it 20 times, some areas would be more concentrated than others. Washing the burette and pipette with the solutions they are to contain before titrating eliminated a lot of error, as other substances may have been present in the equipment. This can affect the concentrations of the solution, hence the volume of the titre used. The conical flask needed to be rinsed with distilled water in between titrations. This removed any solution from the previous titration and so did not affect the concentration of the solution of which it is to contain, as the concentration of the solution is already known. All reading of menisci were taken at eye level, and read from the bottom of the meniscus. Because sulphuric acid is a strong base and sodium carbonate is a weak alkali the most suitable indicator was methyl orange. I decided to have the acid in the burette and the alkali in the conical flask because I feel that it is easier to see a colour change from yellow to orange than orange to yellow. But identifying the end point was still a problem, which may have led to inaccuracies in the results. Using a white tile made it easier to tell when the colour change in the indicator had occurred, AS chemistry coursework Nick Collinson February 2003 - 1 - ...read more.

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