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Finding Out How Much Acid there is in a solution.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

By Osman Khan Lee 12 Apparatus Burette Conical Flask Clamp Stand 2 x 100cm3 Beakers Distilled Water Sulphuric Acid Methyl Orange Indicator Sodium Carbonate Glass Rod Filter Funnel 250cm3 Volumetric Flask Weighing Scales Pipette Pipette Filler Quantities of Chemicals - 2.65g sodium carbonate - 3 drops of methyl orange indicator - Add as much sulphuric acid as is needed to neutralise the sodium carbonate/water solution Method 1. Weigh out 2.65g of sodium carbonate and place this in a 100cm3 beaker. Rinse out the pot in which the sodium carbonate was weighed in using distilled water and pour this into the beaker also (this ensures all of the solid will go in the beaker and reduce experimental inaccuracy). 2. Pour distilled water into the beaker until there is 50cm3 of water into the beaker and then, using a glass rod, stir the contents until the solid has fully dissolved. 3. Using a filter funnel transfer the solution from the beaker into a 250cm3 volumetric flask, ensuring none is spilt. Rinse the beaker using distilled water and pour this into the volumetric flask also. After this has been done rinse the funnel also to ensure all the solution entered the flask. 4. Add water to the volumetric flask until the solution is approximately 1cm3 away from the graduation mark. ...read more.

Middle

Justification of Method I have chosen to use a burette as it has a large resolution- i.e. it can be read very accurately (0.05cm3). This will enable me to obtain more accurate results and therefore to calculate a more reliable reading for the concentration of the sulphuric acid. For the same purpose I have used the volumetric flask as I can accurately make up a concentration of sodium carbonate/ water solution. The instruments I am using are precision instruments which will allow me to measure things more accurately. The fact that I am rinsing things I have placed the sodium carbonate in and then adding it to the solution will also make my results more accurate as I will not be losing any of the sodium carbonate and therefore will not be making a slightly lower concentration. Again when I calculate the concentration of the sulphuric acid I will get a more reliable answer. In these ways I believe that when I carry out my experiment I will be ensuring the test is fair and therefore I will obtain more accurate and reliable results. Details of Sources Used The sources I have used in writing this plan up were worksheets Elements of Life 2.1 which assisted me in writing the procedure to use during this experiment. ...read more.

Conclusion

Ideally the combined percentage error would equal zero, but the very small percentage error I obtained has no significant impact on the experiment. I therefore again say that I think the experiment was very accurate and reliable. The sources of error in my procedure were few. The apparatus was extremely accurate, and so the only real source of error I can see is human error. The main human errors would be observing the colour change. If during one titration I stopped adding the acid when the colour of the indicator was darker, I would clearly have added more acid. This would cause me to overestimate the concentration of the sulphuric acid- that is I would think the acid was less concentrated. However once again I must say that I obtained two titrations within 0.05cm3 of each other. Improving the procedure would be difficult as the apparatus I used was all very accurate. However if I did alter something it would be to use a digital indicator meter which measures the ph level of the acid/alkali solution. By doing this I would not overshoot when adding the acid to the alkali (as I would add acid until the meter read 7) and therefore obtain more accurate readings and less anomalous ones. Apart from this I can think of no other real improvements to the procedure, apart from reading the burette at eye level to prevent reading a higher or lower number. ...read more.

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