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Finding out How much Acid there is in a Solution.

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Introduction

Finding out How much Acid there is in a Solution. PLAN: The purpose of this experiment is to obtain an accurate concentration of sulphuric acid, that is found in solution. We are told that the sulphuric acid to be used has a concentration between 0.05 and 0.15 mol dm , but the task is to clarify the exact concentration using the method of titration. We are also provided with solid, anhydrous sodium carbonate and a range of indicators. From reliable sources that were issued to us, I have been able to determine which of the various indicators given to us that I will use in this titration. I have chosen to work with methyl orange, due to the fact that the titration to be carried out is between sulphuric acid (strong acid) and sodium carbonate (weak alkali). Methyl orange is the indicator to be used, as it is the only one that will work for a strong acid and a weak alkali. To begin with I will have to prepare a standard solution of sodium carbonate that will be used in the titration with sulphuric acid. The sodium carbonate is of known strength and volume in contrast with the unknown concentration of sulphuric acid. This is the equation for the titration: H SO (aq) ...read more.

Middle

Volumetric analysis, determining the concentration of acid: Requirements: * safety glasses * tripod stand * 2 clamps * white tile * conical flask * burette * distilled water * dropping pipette * sulphuric acid, 25cm * filter funnel * sodium carbonate, 2.54g * methyl orange, few drops Here is the procedure by which the titration will be carried out. Procedure: 1: Set-up the stand and the burette, held firmly in position by the clamps, you can refer to the diagram as above. 2: Fill the burette using a filter funnel with 25cm of sulphuric acid. Air bubbles should be avoided. Read off the zero mark at eye level to ensure that the bottom of the meniscus is on the mark. 3: Using the pipette, transfer to the graduation mark on the stem with the sodium carbonate solution and carefully add this to the conical flask. DO NOT blow out the last drops. 4: Add a few drops of the methyl orange indicator to the conical flask (methyl orange is being used as the titration is between a strong acid and a weak alkali). 5: Now perform a rough titration by running the sulphuric acid, whilst swirling the flask of alkali, until the indicator turns a pink colour. This is the end point where the acid and the alkali have neutralised each other. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is the table by which I will be recording the volumes of sulphuric acid used in the titration, hence my results, I will calculate the average volume from these results. Using this form of table should allow me to provide a clear and concise way of representing my results and should aid me in my analysing and evaluating section of this investigation. Accurate (cm) Rough (cm) 1 2 3 4 5 etc Final burette reading Initial burette reading Volume of acid required There will be a certain degree of error in my experiment, which is inevitable, this will be revisited in the analysing section and includes mathematical error. My plan is very clear and shows a step by step view of carrying out the titration, including the equipment to be used. If another student were to use this they would find it very easy to follow and would easily be able to carry out the exact same titration using my instructions. The diagram provided gives a good clear indication of the set-up and should help setting up the apparatus for real. Sources: * Chemical Ideas - Salters Advanced Chemistry (2nd Edition). * Chemistry - Ann and Patrick Fullick (2nd Edition). * Activity Guide (What's In a Medicine) - Salters Advanced Chemistry. * Information sheet on the use if indicators in acid alkali titrations. * Hazards in the Chemical Laboratory - Edited by G.D Muir (2nd Edition). Duncan Beard ...read more.

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