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# Finding out how much acid there is in a solution.

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Introduction

FINDING OUT HOW MUCH ACID THERE IS IN A SOLUTION Analysis Results Table When I performed the titration, these are the results I obtained: Rough 1 2 3 4 Final 30.30 30.15 30.10 30.25 30.15 Initial 0 0 0 0 0 Titre 30.30 30.15 30.10 30.25 30.15 The three sets of underlined results are those that are in 0.1cm3 of each other. (30.15 + 30.15 + 30.10) / 3 = 30.13cm-3 Average Titre = 30.13cm-3 Calculations This equation shows what will happen when the solution of sodium carbonate reacts with the sulphuric acids, and I need this to perform my calculations: H2SO4 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) --> Na2SO4 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O(l) Concentration of Sodium Carbonate used: Concentration = Number of Moles / Volume Number of moles = Mass / RFM = 2.65 / 106 = 0.025 moles Therefore: Concentration = Number of Moles / Volume = 0.025 / 0.250 = 0.1 moldm-3 To find out the number of moles in the actual ...read more.

Middle

Even though this value may be incorrect, it agrees with the original statement that the acid is between "0.05 and 0.15 moldm3", which proves that my results are satisfactory, as they are in the expected range. Evaluation Whilst performing my experiment, a lot of small errors would have occurred. This is expected when using measuring equipment because they are only designed to measure to a certain degree of accuracy. Percentage errors Balance = 0.005 x 100 / 2.65 = 0.189% (3sf) Burette = 0.05 x 100 / 30.13 = 0.165% (3sf) Pipette = 0.240% Flask = 0.080% There were no anomalous results obtained from my experiment, and the percentage errors are very low. This is because I have used reasonably accurate apparatus which is needed when performing a titration. Even though the errors in the performace of the apparatus I used were small, I feel that the main source of error in carrying out the titration, would be distiguishing where the indicator had changed colour. ...read more.

Conclusion

Every reading from the burette, pipette and both flasks were taken using the bottom of the meniscus. Due to the fact that sulpuric acid is a strong acid, and sodium carbonate is a weak alkali, the indicator methyl orange was the best to use. I feel it was best to have the acid placed in the burette rather than it in the conical flask, because its easier to note the colour change from yellow to orange, than orange to yellow. Possible improvements to method If I was to repeat this experiment, and needed more accurate results, the first thing I would do, would be to use a pH meter to distinguish the neutralisation point. This would not make a huge different to the titre, however it would make the investigation more reliable and not subject to the choice of individual colour change. Another step I would take, would be to use larger quantities of solution, this would reduce all errors in the equipment I was using. Eg: Errors 250cm3 Flask = 0.08% 1dm3 Flask = 0.02% Shaun Gilchrist - Assessed Practical Page - 1 ...read more.

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