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Finding out how much Acid there is in a Solution and the Molarity of acid through titration.

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Introduction

Finding out how much Acid there is in a Solution and the Molarity of acid through titration. Edward Hayden Barton Peveril College1 The aim of this investigation is to find out the morality of a sulphuric acid solution between 0.5 and 1.5 mol/dm3; the means of finding out is through titration. Apparatus needed are as follows: 25cm3 Pipette, burette, 250cm3 conical flask, 250cm3 beaker, stand, grip clamp, scales For each repeat experiment the following will be needed: 50cm3 of sulphuric acid, 25cm3 of 0.1mol Sodium Carbonate solution made from distilled water and 2.65g of solid anhydrous sodium carbonate, 2-3 drops methyl orange. First weigh a small piece of paper and record the result, then add this mass to the amount needed of sodium carbonate, in this case 2.65g. Add the amount needed of sodium carbonate to reach the total of paper and substance. Then dissolve this amount of sodium carbonate in distilled water until the solution reaches 250cm3. This makes 0.1m sodium carbonate solution. The equation shows that one mol of H2SO4 and one mol of NACO3 reacts to give one mol of sodium sulphate, one mol of water and one mol of carbon dioxide. We know the acid solution is between 0.05 and 0.15mol/dm3 therefore by making 0.1mol/dm3 solution the amount of each substance will be similar and not an excess of one is needed over the other. ...read more.

Middle

Results: Tests and repeats Amount of NaCO3 0.01 mol/dm3 (cm3) Amount of H2SO4 to neutralise the NaCO3 (cm3) 1 25 13.00 2 25 12.90 3 25 12.50 4 25 12.70 5 25 12.80 12.78 = average From the above data we are able to calculate the morality of the acid. H2SO4 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) --> Na2SO4 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) 1mol 1mol 1mol 1mol 1 mol 12.78cm of ?m H2SO4 solution + 25cm of 0.1m Na2CO3 solution = titration Amount of mols of Na2CO3 used: 0.1/1000 = number of mols in 1cm3 of Na2CO3 solution = 0.0001m 0.01x25 = number of mols in 25cm3 of Na2CO3 solution = 0.0025m Morality of sulphuric acid solution: Therefore 12.78cm3 of H2SO4 solution = 0.0025m 0.0025/12.78 = number of mols in 1cm3 of H2SO4 solution = 0.000197 (3sf) 0.000197x1000 = the morality of solution (number of moles in 1000cm3) = 0.197 mol/dm3 (3sf) solution From taking the average of my results I have calculated that the morality of the sulphuric acid is 0.197m/dm3. However, at the beginning of the experiment I was told that the morality would lie between 0.05 and 0.15m/dm3. Therefore I believe that a small fault in the experiment resulted in me calculating the morality higher than previously expected. ...read more.

Conclusion

If possible, use small measuring apparatus this reduces the percentage error significantly. Then it is possible to transfer this into the larger container. The best idea however is to use a control colour so that it is possible to ensure the results all have the same pH reading. If possible use a control that you know is pH neutral then add the methyl orange and compare the results from the experiment to this control. Also by making larger quantities of the sodium carbonate solution there is a reduction in the percentage error, as a slight misjudgement has less effect the more substance and solution is being used. Instead of using the same solution of sodium carbonate for each repeat, re-make the solution, this will eliminate the possibility of the entire set of results be anomalous or inaccurate. It will provide a more accurate average at the end of the experiment than if you use the same solution throughout.2 By using all the outlines above the results gained are more likely to be accurate and therefore it is possible to come to a stronger and more accurate conclusion. After taking on the precautions outlined after hindsight of the experiment each result will be more accurate, by in a way starting all over again after each repeat minimises the possibilities of a whole set of anomalous results. 1 2 ...read more.

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