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Finding the concentration of a chemical. Outline of procedures: to prepare a standard solution of sodium carbonate and carry out a series of titrations to determine the concentration of hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Title of experiment: preparation of standards sodium carbonate solution Outline of procedures: to prepare a standard solution of sodium carbonate and carry out a series of titrations to determine the concentration of hydrochloric acid. Finding the concentration of a chemical A solution of known concentration is called a standard solution. Hazardous substances being made or used. Nature of hazards Quantities being used Control measures and precautions Sodium carbonate Hydrochloric acid Irritant corrosive 2.65g small Wear goggles Wear lab coat and goggles. Any non-chemical hazards and precautions to be taken Any spills to be wiped immediately Disposal of residues. Done by Technician Apparatus: * balance * weighing bottle * spatula * beaker * glass rod * wash bottle * filter funnel * volumetric flask * pipette * teat pipette * conical flask * burette Method To prepare a standard solution first I will calculate the mass of solute needed. ...read more.

Middle

The steps I will take to complete this experiment are as follows. 1: Measurements To make 250cm3 of 1.00mol/l solution of sodium carbonate I will use the following measurements: Mass of 1.00 mol of Na2CO3 = 106g Mass of Na2CO3 needed to make 1.00 l of a 0.100mol/l solution = 10.6g Mass of Na2CO3 needed to make 250cm3 of a 0.100mol/l solution = 2065g 2: Mass of weighing bottle = 9.277g Calculated mass of anhydrous sodium carbonate = 2.65g Mass of weighing bottle + solid = 11.93 g 3: (i) With a clean dry spatula I added anhydrous sodium carbonate to the weighing bottle using a top pan balance until the weighing bottle and contents reached the combined mass that I had calculated. (ii) I then poured 100cm3 of distilled water into a clean beaker and carefully tipped the sodium carbonate into the beaker. ...read more.

Conclusion

(iii) I stopped when the solution turned pink and measured the level of HCL left in the pipette. (iv) Then repeated these steps three times to get a fair result Trial 2 3 Average Final burette reading 21.50cm3 20.90cm3 21.10cm3 Initial burette reading 0.00cm3 0.00cm3 0.00cm3 Titre 21.50cm3 20.90cm3 21.10cm3 21.00cm3 Results: Na2CO3 + 2HCL --> NaCl + H2O + CO2 Mols of Na2Co3 = 0.0025 Ratio = 1:2 Mols of HCL = 0.005 Concentration of HCL = 0.238mols/dm3 Conclusion: In this experiment I was able to find out the concentration of a chemical through many experiments. This experiment was carried out under conditions similar to those in an industrial process but there were a couple of differences which include the amount of chemoicals available to us which hampered our chances of experimenting with different types of chemicals. I think this experiment was a success because I achieved my goal and learnt a lot from it. ?? ?? ?? ?? Page:1 Mohamed hassan student number: 20042512 ...read more.

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