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Finding the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction of magnesium ribbon with hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

AMDG Aaron Mcloughlin 14.01.02 Finding the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction of magnesium ribbon with hydrochloric acid. Planning Introduction The experiment I am carrying out, Is to find the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction. Safety Whilst using acids such as hydrochloric acid, which are corrosive, certain safety aspects should be taken. Safety goggles should be warned to protect eyes from acid. Also when the experiment is taking place, there should be no naked flames as I am using flammable material such as, Hydrogen, and, magnesium. Also when using glass equipment, great care should be taken. Glass can shatter and cause serious injury. Therefore, care must be taken when handling to avoid shattered glass. Equipment 30cm3 hydrochloric acid 0.06g magnesium ribbon Measuring cylinder (50cm3) Conical flask Gas syringe (higher level of accuracy) Electronic stopwatch (measures to 2 d.p) Electronic balance (measures to 2 d.p) Rubber bung Burette (measures to 1 d.p) Equation Magnesium + hydrochloric acid = magnesium chloride +hydrogen. Mg(s) + 2HCL(l) = MgCL2(L) + H2(g) Procedure Before the experiment began I prepared the varying concentration of hydrochloric acid. To prepare these I used an already prepared 2 mole acid and poured it into 4 beakers, measuring 100ml3. I then took 100ml3 of water and 100ml3 of acid and poured them into a beaker. This gave me exactly half the concentration giving me 1 mole. I did the same to the 1 mole solution, to give me 0.5 mole. To make 1.5 moles, I took the 2 mole solution and mixed it with the 1 mole solution in direct proportions. I will begin the experiment by firstly removing the bung, then placing the already prepared 30cm3 mole of acid as below into the conical flask, safety again in order not to lose any of the acid and cut down on experimental error. Then place 0.06g exactly of magnesium ribbon in to the conical flask, the strip should be carefully placed into the flask as not to cause ...read more.

Middle

Simply having reactant molecules colliding is necessary but not sufficient in it. The collisions have to be effective. What constitutes an effective collision? In order for a molecular collision to be effective it must meet two conditions: 1. The collision must have sufficient enough impact energy to overcome the Activation Energy. The Activation energy is the minimum energy necessary for product to form. This impact energy must be sufficient so that bonds can be broken within the reactant molecules and new bonds formed to produce the products. 2. The molecules must have a proper positioning for effective collisions to occur. If we examine the four factors that influence the rate of a reaction we can see how each of these postulates result in these factors influencing the rate. * Nature of the reactants. If we crush the reactants, we are in essence increasing the total surface area that collisions can take place. This will have an enhanced effect on rate of product formation. Gaseous reactants have a higher Kinetic energy, and therefore the impact energy will be greater resulting in a higher rate of product formation * Concentrations of the reactants in the rate-determining step. If we increase the concentration, we are, in essence, increasing the total number of collisions. This, in turn, will increase the number of effective collisions, and the rate will increase. * Temperature- increasing the temperature increases the average Kinetic Energy of the molecules. This will increase the impact energy enough to overcome the Energy of Activation. * Catalyst- Catalyst provides a surface whereby the reacting molecules might position themselves more favourably for collision. The Collision Theory of Reaction Rates explains how each of the above factors affects the rate of the reaction. Analysing Evidence and Drawing Conclusions * Explanation of what has been found out The experiment proved that if, "concentration," is changed so will the rate of reaction. ...read more.

Conclusion

When these results were plotted on a graph, it was clear that the stronger the mole of an acid, the quicker there reaction was. I found the procedure to be good and efficient except for the first experiment. In this experiment the equipment and procedure failed as the gas was not being correctly collected. * How could the experiment be improved The experiment could always be improved to a stage were the equipment was highly professional. The equipment could be changed to which no gas could escape. The magnesium could always be measured to a more approximate point and the volume and concentrations of acid could have been better manufactured then using a measuring cylinder. It could have been supplied already prepared by a chemical factory. For the gas syringe, it could be improved if I was to place some Vaseline in the syringe to allow it to move freely, to stop it from getting stuck. The air pressure and temperature could be examined in more depth throughout the experiment to make certain that all factors were kept the same, but this would not make a noticeable change. You would use a monometer to check pressure and a thermometer to measure temperature. From information obtained I know that if magnesium is left in the air it reacts with oxygen to form magnesium oxide, (silver coat,) this is how we received it. This would cause some magnesium strips to react faster than others. The magnesium in these cases could be cleaned with sandpaper to stop the acid having to eat through this coat. Added factors to be considered: To widen the experiments range of results for concentration, I could have used all reactive metals in-group 2. With these metals I could have seen if my theory for double the concentration would double the rate of reaction and would have given me the same results. This experiment would also prove the effect of different concentrations on metals. In cohesion with this I could have broadened the range of concentrations used, to gain a better knowledge of the effect of different concentrations. ...read more.

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