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Findingout how much acid

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Introduction

Finding out how much acid There is in a solution Aim To find out the accurate concentration, of Sulphuric acid sample that is given. It is thought that the acid has a concentration between 0.05 and 0.015 mol dm-3. The solid anhydrous Sodium Carbonate that is provided has to be used to find the concentration of the acid. Background Information Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) is a strong mineral acid, which is soluble in water at all concentrations. It is the most widely used chemical. Principal uses include fertilizer manufacturing, ore processing, chemical synthesis, wastewater processing and oil refining. The hydration reaction of Sulphuric acid is highly exothermic. If water is added to the concentrated acid it can boil. Because the hydration of sulfuric acid is thermodynamically favorable, sulphuric acid is an excellent dehydration agent, and is used to prepare many dried fruits. Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) is a sodium salt of carboni acid. It is a white crystaline compound with a cooling alkaline taste and it is found in the ashes of many plants. It is used in the manufacture of glass, chemicals such as sodium silicates and sodium phosphates, the pulp and paper industries, the manufacture of detergents and for the treatment of water. It is also used as an alkaline agent in many chemical industries. The reaction between the compounds is as follows: H2SO4(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) --> Na2SO4(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) Details This investigation is simply a titration of Sodium Carbonate and Sulphuric Acid. The unknown concentration is always placed in the flask; therefore the Sulphuric Acid will be placed in the flask of this titration. As the sulphuric acid is thought to be between 0.05 and 0.015 mol dm-3, it will be sensible to use a 0.1 mol dm-3 of Sodium Carbonate, as it is half way between the predicted concentration of 0.05 and 0.015 mol dm-3. ...read more.

Middle

* Slowly turn the stop cock of the burette allowing small amounts of the standard solution of Sodium Carbonate in to the conical flask. * It is very important to swirl the conical flask, to allow the base to react fully with the acid. * Once a pale yellow colour is noticeable, it is necessary to add the base solution very slowly to the acid, so that the reaction will not go over the end point. * When a pale yellow colour is reached, the end point to the neutralisation is reached therefore stop adding the base to the acid. * Record the value of the Sodium Carbonate in cm3 required for the neutralistaion of the Sulphuric Acid. This will be your final reading. * The difference between the initial reading and the final reading will be the titre of this titration. * These procedures will have to be followed until the accurate results with 0.1 cm3 accuracy. Safety Procedures Safety is very important in this investigation. Therefore there are procedures that have to be followed in order to make this investigation safe and prevent any harm. Procedures are as following: * Handle all glass test tubes, pipettes with great care as they can be easily broken and cause injury or cuts. * Goggles must be worn at all times as the acid or the base can case damage to the eyes. * It is very important not to swallow any solution in this investigation. As all solutions can cause serious damage to the body. * Lab coat should be worn at all times during the experiment. The acid is corrosive thus causing damage to the skin as well as your clothes. ...read more.

Conclusion

� 2.57%] + 10.1 = 0.25957 + 10.1 = 10.4 cm3 to 3sf Evaluation Minimum = 10.1 - [(10.1/100) � 2.57%] = 10.1 - 0.25957 = 9.84 cm3 to 3sf Evaluation From the values above, we are able to see how much error that there could have been in the titration of the investigation. Although it was only by 2.57%, this could have had a net effect on the Concentration of the Sulphuric Acid. Reducing Errors Referring back to the percentage errors, the main source of error came from the burette. Therefore to gain more accurate results a burette with a smaller volume can be used. This will reduce the percentage error, which will have a net effect in the final data. Reducing the size of the burette will have no negative effect in the volumes, as the average titre was 10.1 cm3. Possibly reducing the burette size to 20cm3 will be a great benefit to gain accurate results. The volumetric pipettes are very hard to replace, as a 10cm3 graduated pipettes were used. The only smaller available size was the 1cm3 graduated pipette, this has a smaller percentage error, however it has to be used a number of times to gain 10cm3 of the standard solution. The balance had the smallest percentage error and this can be reduced even further by possibly using a three decimal place scale. This will reduce the percentage error further, which will be a benefit to reduce the net percentage error. Reducing these errors will result in more accurate titrations and gaining more accurate results. Therefore if repeated the experiment will be more successful. However the current result gained from the investigation is correct as it was compared to a reference value. In conclusion this titration investigation was successful. ...read more.

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