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Follow a titration and find the end point by measuring the temperature changes that take place during the titration.

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Chemistry Coursework Background: When an acid reacts with a base or alkali, a neutral solution is formed which contains salt and water. This is known as a neutralisation reaction. The general formula for these reactions is Acid + Base Salt + Water During a chemical reaction the chemical bonds between atoms are made and broken as they are formed into new compounds. Energy has to be put in to break a bond and therefore taken in to make new ones this is why some reactions are exothermic (making bonds) and endothermic (breaking bonds). If you add an acid solution to an alkaline solution the two will react and neutralise each other forming a salt. The resulting solution will only be neutral if the two are present in exactly the right quantities. If there is more of one than the other then the solution will be either more acidic or more alkali. The precise amounts of acid and alkali solutions can be measured using a laboratory process called titration. The process is carried out by adding a pH indicator to the alkali solution and then adding acid solution till the indicator shows that the solution is neutral. ...read more.


Prediction: I predict that as the acid is added to the alkali solution then the temperature will rise. I think this because there will be an exothermic reaction taking place (neutralisation) because new bonds are being made for the new compounds that are present at the end of the reaction. I can then use this to tell when the end point of the titration is because the temperature will go down to its original temperature because the reaction will have finished. Method: Apparatus: Pipette Pipette filler Burette Funnel 50ml beaker x2 Conical flask Stand and clamp Thermometer First a 50ml beaker was filled with the alkali solution and then the other beaker was filled with the acid. Then the pipette filler was attached to he pipette and was used to fill the pipette with 25cm� of the alkali solution and it was then put in the conical flask. The burette was then put in the clamp and suspended above the conical flask and then filled using the funnel with 50cm� of acid. The thermometer was placed in the conical flask and the temperature of the alkali solution was recorded. ...read more.


more and more acid is added to the solution the temperature continues to rise because each 1cm� of acid that reacts with 1cm� of alkali solution builds on the heat generated from the previous 1cm� this can only mean that the temperature where the reaction is taking place is much warmer than the solution as a whole because it continues to heat up the solution. The graph and results both show that at 20cm� of acid added the temperature starts to decrease even when more acid is added this indicates that all the alkali has been used up because if there was still any in the solution then it would react with the acid (neutralisation) which would generate heat and raise the temperature of the solution. Evaluation: I am fairly confident that my results are accurate I think this because the experiment was a titration so the apparatus I used such as burettes and pipettes are extremely accurate. However I only measured the temperature every time I added 1cm� so the experiment is only accurate to 1cm�. So if I did the experiment again I would start doing the experiment to 0.1cm� when Hugh Daniels ...read more.

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