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# Force of Friction

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Physics TAS Experimental Report

Force of Friction

Force of Friction

Report Type:

Brief

Date:  29th October, 2007

Mark:      / 10

Objective:

• To study the effects of the normal force, materials involved and surface area on the force of friction using a block.
• To estimate the coefficients of static and kinetic friction.

Results:

1. Friction and Applied Force
 1 2 3 4 5 Static Readings / N 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.8 1.2 Kinetic Readings / N 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

Table 1

Graph 1

1. Coefficients of Friction for Wooden Block
 Number of blocks 1 2 3 4 Applied Force (F) Limiting Static Friction (fL) 1.2 N 2.2 N 4.0 N 5.0 N Kinetic Friction (fk) 0.8 N 1.8 N 3.3 N 4.5 N Normal Force (R) 1.852 N 3.727 N 5.561 N 7.186 N

Middle

2.2 N

4.4 N

6.8 N

8.8 N

Kinetic Friction (fk)

1.6 N

2.6 N

3.4 N

4.2 N

Normal Force (R)

3.502 N

6.943 N

10.393 N

14.008 N

Table 3

Graph 4

Graph 5

From the graphs,  and .

1. Coefficients of Friction for Steel Blocks
 Number of blocks 1 2 3 4 Applied Force (F) Limiting Static Friction (fL) 0.2 N 0.6 N 1.0 N 1.6 N Kinetic Friction (fk) 0.1 N 0.4 N 0.8 N 1.4 N Normal Force (R) 0.996 N 2.001 N 3.002 N 4.004 N

Table 4

Graph 6

Graph 7

From the graphs,  and .

1. Contact Surface Area
 Number of Blocks 2 3 4 Pile Up

Conclusion

1. State the sources of error and suggest improvements for the experiment.
• Drags of objects on the wooden plane will flatten the surface of the plane and change its roughness of the plane. The values obtained vary in different measurements.
• The roughness of the surface is not uniform throughout the wooden plane, i.e. some area of the plane is relatively smooth and some is otherwise. When dragging across different areas, inconsistent values of kinetic friction will be measured. Besides, when dragging the blocks along the plane in order to measure the kinetic friction, it is impossible to maintain constant speed by human hand.
• Sometimes the readings on the spring balance vary too fast and are difficult to observe. Systematic errors will rise. Data-logger should be used for more accurate results.

- End of Report -

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