• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Gain in Kinetic Energy And Momentum Of A System.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Gain in Kinetic Energy And Momentum Of A System

Experiment

Below is a diagram of the experiment.

Here, a trolley of mass 1kg was released at the top of a slanted runway. To pull the trolley down the runway a falling mass was attached to the trolley. Card of 200mm length was also attached to the trolley so that it would break a light gate further down the runway. This enabled the maximum velocity of the trolley and the falling mass to be found.

With the first test the mass was varied in 100g intervals with the height of the mass kept constant at 80cm.

Here I would expect that with the more weight pulling the trolley the kinetic energy of the trolley will increase and so the velocity of the trolley will increase also.

Overleaf is a results table for this experiment.

Weight in g

Velocity1 mm/s

Velocity2 mm/s

Velocity3 mm/s

Velocity4 mm/s

Average mm/s

100

1286

1129

1161

1167

1185.75

200

1817

1589

1614

1486

1626.5

300

1878

1850

1757

1874

1839.75

400

2116

1988

2018

2045

2041.75

500

2283

2430

2294

2240

2311.75

600

2387

2548

2407

2392

2433.5

700

2564

2497

2472

2418

2487.75

800

2601

2670

2635

2597

2625.75

Here the graph produced a curve with a positive correlation. This showed that there was not a linear relationship and that it could possibly be a y = x² graph.

...read more.

Middle

Force (Newtons)

Time (Seconds)

1

1.33

2

0.98

3

0.83

4

0.75

5

0.69

6

0.65

7

0.62

8

0.60

Here the graph produced a curve with a negative correlation. This was expected as the more weight pulling down on the trolley, the faster the trolley will move and therefore the shorter the time taken for the mass to reach the ground.

To calculate the impulse acting on the system in Newtons seconds I used the following formula:

Impulse Acting = F X t

Where F is the force acting on the system and t is the time in seconds.

The momentum gain of the system should be equal to the impulse acting on the system and so this allowed me to check the values found.

To calculate the momentum gain of the system I used the following formula:

Momentum Gain = v[M+m]

Below is a table of all of the calculated data from the first test.

Force (Newtons)

Time (Seconds)

Impulse Acting on System

Momentum Gain of System

1

1.33

1.33

1.30

2

0.98

1.96

1.95

3

0.83

2.50

2.39

4

0.75

2.99

2.86

5

0.69

3.46

3.47

6

0.65

3.92

3.89

7

0.62

4.36

4.23

8

0.60

4.80

4.73

Here the impulse acting on the system and the momentum gain of the system values were very close to each other which helped to validate the results.

...read more.

Conclusion

7">50

1586

1617

1594

1623

1605

40

1762

1441

1524

1892

1654.75

30

1193

1285

1460

1259

1299.25

20

1016

1052

1041

1027

1034

10

686

751

677

699

703.25

Here, the graph produced a curve with a positive correlation. The curve showed that as the height increases, the rate of change of speed of the trolley decreases.

To calculate the work done for this second test the following formula was used:

Work Done = F X S

Where F is the net force and S is the distance the mass was dropped.

To calculate the kinetic energy gain of the system the following formula was used:

K.E. Gain = ½ v²[M+m]

Below is a table of this calculated data for the second test made.

Height in cm

Speed in mm/s

Work Done in Joules

K.E. Gain of System

Time

Force

80

1649.4

14.97

156.8

3.74

4

70

1627.4

14.00

137.2

3.50

4

60

1443.8

12.96

117.6

3.24

4

50

1294

11.83

98

2.96

4

40

1331.8

10.58

78.4

2.65

4

30

1045.4

9.17

58.8

2.29

4

20

831.2

7.48

39.2

1.87

4

10

564.6

5.29

19.6

1.32

4

Conclusion

By calculating the different data from the results using a spreadsheet I have been able to find numerous relationships.

These include:

  • Distance is proportional to Time squared
  • Kinetic Energy is proportional to the mass of the falling load
  • The Kinetic Energy is proportional to the Gravitational Potential Energy
  • Weight of falling load divided by Net Force is proportional to Acceleration squared.

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Forces and Motion section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Forces and Motion essays

  1. Measure the earth´s gravitational field strength.

    and m = mass (in kg) Normal Force, Fnorm The normal force is the support force exerted upon an object which is in contact with another stable object. For example, if a book is resting upon a surface, then the surface is exerting an upward force upon the book in order to support the weight of the book.

  2. Conservation of Momentum

    initial velocity with relatively similar velocity in magnitude to the heavier cart's initial velocity. The error was 1.86%. Again the error may have come from the loss of momentum to the track in the collision. Event 8: Event eight was an explosion of equal masses.

  1. In this experiment I aim to find out how the force and mass affect ...

    Simultaneously start the stop clock and release the trolley (be careful not to push it or exert any extra force on it) 6. Stop the clock when the front of the trolley reaches the finish line 7. Record the time taken for the trolley to reach the finish, next to the relevant weight, in a table 8.

  2. The Flywheel as an Alternative Energy Storage Device for Electric Vehicles (EV): Problems Associated ...

    The FES does not have any emissions, does not involve any disposal problems, and is very environmentally friendly since it does not comprise of any toxic or corrosive substances. Also, given the current technological development of the flywheel, the flywheel is capable of storing much more energy per weight, can

  1. Physics Lab - Conservation of momentum

    Measure the distance traveled by each and the time taken by both carts to reach the precise collision point. 6) Note the direction and measure the distance traveled by Cart 1 after the collision, as well as the time taken to become stationary after the collision.

  2. A trolley is pushed to the top of a ramp, the summit being 20cm ...

    Obviously we will need to take precautions when increasing the mass of the trolley and make sure that all the weights are securely fixed to it by using sellotape, string etc. Especially when the trolley reaches high speeds, the likelihood of weights falling off is increased and this could be potentially harmful to an innocent on-looker.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work