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Gcse Coursework Acid Rain Investigation

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Introduction

GCSE Coursework Acid Rain Investigation Thomas English Candidate Number: 1239 Centre Number: 14388 Contents The Task Page 1 Background Knowledge Page 1 - 2 Experimental Prediction Page 2 Safety Page 3 Factors to Vary and Control Page 3 Range and Number of Observations Page 3 Accuracy of Observations Page 3 Preliminary Work Page 3 Experimental Procedure Page 4 Analysis Page 11 Evaluation Page 12 Graphs, Charts and Diagrams Scatter Graph showing Volume of Gas against time Page 5 Line Graph showing Gas given off against Time Page 6 Graph with rate calculations Page 7 Graph showing Rate against time after 20 seconds Page 8 Diagram to show Collision Theory Page 9 Raw Data Page 10 The Task Marble buildings are corroded by acid rain. The rate of corrosion is affected by various factors, the reaction can be affected by temperature, concentration, pressure, surface area and in some circumstances light can also be a factor. We have investigated the rate of corrosion on marble chips with Hydrochloric acid to find out more about acid rain erosion. Background Knowledge The principle chemicals that produce acid rain are sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NO2 ) including nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide. Natural as well as human activities are responsible for the production of these atmospheric pollutants. Natural processes include bacterial action in soils, volcanic eruptions and degassing from oceanic plankton. ...read more.

Middle

Temperature inversions, common in urban areas, can concentrate pollutants near the ground and bring about persistent smog. The London smog of December 1952 was the most infamous of recent times. It covered a radius of 30km from the centre and current estimates of the pH of the smog range from 1.4 to 1.9 (more acidic than lemon juice!). 4,000 deaths were attributed to bronchial infections resulting from this smog. One other notable acid deposition incident in Britain included an acid mist of pH2 which covered much of the Lincolnshire and Norfolk coastline on 9th September 1989 and which was caused by heavy industry and vehicle emissions in Germany and Poland. The leaves on thousands of trees were scorched overnight and aluminium implements corroded. Such incidents, however, are not unusual. Unusually high concentrations of sulphur and nitric acid have been recorded in Athens, Mexico City, Tokyo and Los Angeles on a regular basis. Experimental Prediction The factor we will be investigating is concentration; my prediction is that if the concentration is doubled then the rate will double this means that the two are proportional. Our secondary factor is temperature; my prediction for this is that if the temperature is doubled then the rate will double. The idea behind my predictions is the collision theory, particles of the different substances, in this case marble and hydrochloric acid, move around and when they collide they react. ...read more.

Conclusion

The large chips were the best for the higher concentrations but were useless with the lower ones so we chose to use the medium chips. At the start of the preliminary work we agreed to take readings every 10 seconds and choose the concentrations and size of chips to fit the readings. When we chose the medium chips we saw that the most likely place for an error in our results was in the higher concentrations so we chose only a few high ones and more lower ones. Experimental Procedure: Equipment List: Gas Syringe 500ml Conical Flask Measuring Cylinder Hydrochloric acid Distilled Water Marble Chips Electric Scales Stop Clock To start with we cleared everything away and followed the precautions I outlined in the safety section. After this we collected together our equipment and set it up as shown in the diagram. Next we weighed out 10g of medium marble chips and 10ml of the acid. We added the acid into the conical flask and then my partner would add the marble chips and put the bung in the flask whilst I would start the clock. He would then read out the results every 10 seconds and I would record them in the table. We measured the results in gas given off, an alternative way of recording results would have been to have the conical flask on the scales and to record the mass loss. ...read more.

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