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Genetic Modification

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Introduction

Genetic Modification Introduction I am going to begin with explaining what genetic material is and where it is found. I will explain the scientific facts and moral issues associated with Genetically Modificated foods and DNA. The Collins English Dictionary Definition of Genetic is 'the scientific study of hereditary of individuals, esp. of inherited characteristics; the study of physiology of reproduction and the art of breeding'. The genetic material is DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). It is usually found in every cell, from microorganisms that have only one cell, to plants and animals that have many cells, where the cells make up tissues and organs. The cell and its constituents can be seen only with the help of increasingly powerful microscopes (see picture, right). Inside a cell from a plant or animal, the genetic material is enclosed in a spherical compartment, the nucleus. It is packaged into long compact structures called chromosomes. The totality of all the genetic material packaged into chromosomes is the genome. Each species has a different genome. For example, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes in the human genome, one of each pair from each parent. ...read more.

Middle

Farmers would use this process with cows until they got the optimum yield out of them cross breeding them over and over again Another way to create genetic changes is by using radiation, this is called radiation mutagenesis. In this process plants or plant cells are bombarded with radiation that damages DNA, causing changes at random, some of which produce useful results. But these results are never certain a scientist could use this technique, which is far more expensive to, and never reach the perfect result. Although Genetically modified plants are more costly in the short run they are relatively cheap to say the results are near perfect all the time and we never have to worry about being able to do the experiment again because its recorded and is easily possible to do the exact experiment again. Genetic engineering is a recent technique for improving crop plants. It is a process where a single gene is added to a plants complement of genes, together with a gene that provides a marker, which allows plants carrying the first gene to be identified. It does this by hitching a lift with a DNA fragment from a natural engineer, or by bombarding plant tissue with tiny gold particles covered in DNA. ...read more.

Conclusion

Maize The maize approved for use in the UK contains a special gene (Bacillus thuringiensis). This is a toxin to most insects, mainly catapillars and the bacteria itself has been used as an insecticide by organic farmers for many years. Some people have a view that there is no point fussing about the choice of our foods in the supermarkets and to think about others that are less fortunate than ourselves. The promises made by the super rich GM companies to try and combat this problem don't seem to be working so they should just let nature do its thing. We have survived until now without GM products so there is no great need for them. I believe that the way forward is with genetic modification, many things are gained from this and there are few disadvantages. We will in time be able to make plants with up to ten times the nutrients of those today and at minimal extra cost because the research that will be carried out in the future. The world will come to terms with the fact that genetic modification is part of life and that in the near future it will help save lives. ?? ?? ?? ?? Sean Beggs AS General Studies Module 2 ...read more.

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