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Germination lab _ siddharth nair

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Introduction

BIOLOGY LAB REPORT- EFFECT ON PLANT GROWTH WITH DIFFERENT INORGANIC ION SOLUTIONS Aim: To investigate the effect of different inorganic ions in the form of weak solutions on germinating cress plants. Theory: Photosynthesis is the conversion of light energy into chemical energy by living organisms. The raw materials are carbon dioxide and water; the energy source is sunlight; and the end-products are oxygen and (energy rich) carbohydrates, for example sucrose, glucose and starch. This process is arguably the most important biochemical pathway, since nearly all life depends on it. It is a complex process occurring in higher plants, phytoplankton, algae, as well as bacteria such as cyanobacteria. Photosynthetic organisms are also referred to as photoautotrophs. The word comes from the Greek photo-, "light", and synthesis, "putting together". Photosynthesis uses light energy and carbon dioxide to make food. A commonly used but slightly simplified equation for photosynthesis is: 6 CO2(gas) + 12 H2O(liquid) + photons � C6H12O6(aqueous) + 6 O2(gas) carbon dioxide + water + light energy � glucose + oxygen When written as a word equation the light energy appears above the arrow as it is required for photosynthesis but it is not actually a reactant. Here the monosaccharide glucose is shown as a product, although the actual processes in plants produce disaccharides. The equation is often presented in introductory chemistry texts in an even more simplified form as:[2] 6 CO2(gas) + 6 H2O(liquid) + photons � C6H12O6(aqueous) + 6 O2(gas) ...read more.

Middle

This enabled the cress seed to get attached to the finger and thus it could be moved easily. Quantitative analysis (Observations): Table 1: Inorganic ion solution: Observation of plant sample after 1 week: Sodium phosphate * 8 seeds germinated and grew. * Leaves of plants are green and healthy. * 2 seeds did not germinate at all. * Plants that grew stand erect. * Average height was taller compared to other samples. Potassium phosphate * Plants that grew stood upright. * Leaves of plants are bright green and look fresh. * 5 seeds did not germinate at all. * 5 seeds germinated and grew. Sodium nitrate * 6 seeds did not germinate at all. * Leaves of plants were yellowish-green. * 3 of the plants that grew did not stand erect. * 4 seeds germinated and grew. Potassium nitrate * Leaves of plants were dark green in colour. * 4 seeds did not germinate at all. * Plants that grew stood erect. * 2 plants began growing but died later. * 6 seeds germinated and grew. Tap water * The 3 plants were extremely short and curved. * Leaves of plants were bright green but were drooping. * 7 seeds did not germinate at all. * 3 seeds germinated and grew. All 4 solutions * Leaves of the plants had not opened up and were small. * 4 seeds germinated and grew. * 6 seeds did not germinate at all. * The 4 plants were not standing erect. ...read more.

Conclusion

Improvements possible for the experiment: * Distilled water could have been used instead of tap water so that no excess ions could change the concentration of the ions present inside the solutions. * For better accuracy, the volume of inorganic ion solutions poured initially should have been measured for uniformity. The same could have been done with the volume of water poured into the samples everyday. * Results of 3 people could have been compared to these so that possible anomalies could be pointed out. * For measuring the length of the curled up plants a string could be used to measure the experiment to measure the length more accurately. * Only a fixed amount of water should have been added everyday so therefore the results would have been fair and more accurate results could have been obtained. * It should be made sure that no parallax errors occur in the experiment. * It should be made sure that the cress seeds are all in good conditions. * Moreover it should also be made sure that the tissue paper is soaked up properly therefore the seeds would germinate well and therefore there would be less errors. Conclusion: So to conclude it can be said that the plants grew the best with phosphorous present. It did not grow that well in the other nutrients. The errors identified above may have increased the inaccuracy of the experiment. Therefore, it can finally be concluded that plants need all the inorganic ions but they should be in correct quantities and should be added correctly to the plants. Siddharth Nair 10 C 1 ...read more.

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