• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

GNVQ/Vocational Science - Reduction of Copper including methods of extracting metals (copper) in industry

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Reduction of Copper Carbonate Introduction Malachite is a rock, Cu2(CO3)(OH)2, Copper Carbonate Hydroxide and it is found in Shaba, Congo; Tsumeb, Nambia; Ural mountains, Russia; Mexico; several sites in Australia; England and several localities in the Southwestern United States especially in Arizona, USA. Copper, Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen are the elements that make up malachite. The copper in Malachite can be extracted through a displacement reaction. A single-displacement reaction is where one element appears to move out of one compound and into another. This is usually written as: A + BX � AX + B This will occur if A is more reactive than B. (Malachite) Risk Assessment The open end of the boiling tube should be pointed away from any person so that anything that spits out it does not cause any harm. Wear goggles. The equipment is going to get very hot so you must be careful not to touch it until it cools. Method 1. Put 10 g of malachite powder into a large test tube and heat it gently until it turns black and stops rising in the test tube. 2. Allow the tube to cool. 3. Add 1 g of carbon powder and mix well. 4. Heat the mixture strongly until it turns red. 5. Let the mixture cool. ...read more.

Middle

The Industrial Process of Refining Copper Ore The raw ore first needs to be crushed into smaller pieces. The ore is crushed in to 25cm pieces and then using water and 13cm steel balls, the ore is ground up into 1cm pieces. The unwanted rock settles out using froth flotation, which concentrates the ore. Using a blast furnace, the copper ore is burnt with oxygen to produce matte, iron is removed as slag and sulphur comes off as sulphuric dioxide. The matte is placed into a converter furnace and air is blown through, which removes iron and sulphur to blister copper. Natural gas is blown into the anode furnace to burn off any remaining oxygen in the melt. The copper melt is cast into anodes where the anodes in the copper sulphate are refined to 99.99% pure, thus producing a 99.99% pure cathode. Industry uses much larger amounts of ore than in the lab. This improves the percentage yield as the more ore that is used, the more metal that can be extracted from it. Industry uses higher temperatures than in the lab, and also the heating process does not need to be repeated as it is as efficient as need be the first time round. ...read more.

Conclusion

Electrolysis is often a lot more expensive than extracting metal from an ore through the use of coke produced from cheap coal, as the electricity bill for the electrolysis of a metal is very high. Sometimes, more reactive metals such as aluminium cost more to extract than less reactive metals like iron. This being said, as copper is a lot less reactive than both carbon and iron it should be quite an expensive metal to extract Extracting Copper through Electrolysis: 1. After smelting, impure copper is poured into a block to form the positive anode. Previously purified copper is used to make the negative cathode. Both the anode and cathode are dipped into an electrolyte of copper sulphate solution. 2. An electrical current passes through the solution, causing electrolysis to happen - this, forming blue copper ions (Cu2+). 3. Now that we have gained positive ions, they become attracted to the negative cathode and react to form copper atoms. The mass of copper dissolving at the anode and the copper deposited on the cathode are equal - the concentration of the copper sulphate is constant. 4. Impurities found in the impure copper anode decline to the bottom of the copper electrolysis vessel, where it is poured off as waste, though sometimes can be valuable and contains other metals such as silver. ?? ?? ?? ?? Unit 3 Portfolio 1 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Changing Materials - The Earth and its Atmosphere section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Changing Materials - The Earth and its Atmosphere essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    What is a metal ore?

    4 star(s)

    Reactions in the blast furnace 1. The coke (carbon) reacts with oxygen in the hot air to make carbon dioxide. C(s) + 0 (g) CO (g) 2. This carbon dioxide reacts with more hot coke to make carbon monoxide gas. CO (g) + C(s) 2CO(g) 3. The carbon monoxide then reduces the iron oxide to iron.

  2. Investigating The Reactivity Of The Metals Iron, Magnesium, Zinc, Copper And Calcium And Their ...

    Atoms of these metals are reactive, but their ions are stable. Metals at the bottom of the reactivity are the opposite of those metals at the top. Ions of these metals want to gain electrons and form atoms so these metals are less reactive. (From chemistry counts by Graham Hill)

  1. Investigate the factors that affect the mass of Copper deposited on the Copper Cathode ...

    An average mass of 0.29g of copper was calculated. This inaccurate average was produced because the second experiment using 0.8A as the current provided a poor result, and this quite dramatically affected my average. Possible reasons for these anomalous results will be given in my evaluation. However having said this my quantitative prediction supports my results as my prediction

  2. Factors affecting mass of copper transferred in Electrolysis of aqueous copper sulphate

    which is a substantial proportion and as I took 3 repeat readings which were almost the same a firm conclusion can be drawn. But we could have taken more results given the time, to give a better average reading that would have made a more meaningful conclusion.

  1. What Effects the Reaction in the Electrolysis of Copper Sulphate.

    will be less coulombs in the circuit and less copper 'migrating' in the experiment. The concentration of the solution would not be expected to have a significant effect on the experiment since the concentration of ions do not make it any easier for the electrons to flow, nor does it affect any factors in the ionic equation of reaction.

  2. Electrolysis of Copper Chloride

    It is now true to say that if the concentration is doubled, the amount of copper produced is also doubled. Proof of this can be seen in the obtained results: At 0.25 molar 0.11 grams of Copper is produced. At 0.5 molar 0.23 grams of Copper is produced.

  1. Extraction of Metals.

    TiC, WC or ZrC) giving metal unwanted properties * The temperature required is excessively high for reactive metals Extraction of IRON in the Blast Furnace Carbon is needed in the extraction of iron. To do this a giant blast furnace is used to create a continuous process of extracting iron from its ore.

  2. Extraction of metals and Alloys.

    How the Blast Furnace Works (See appendix - Diagram 3) Hot air is blasted into the Blast Furnace which creates the carbon or coke to ignite. The temperature is about 2000oC. Carbon dioxide reacts with the carbon and makes carbon monoxide. This reduces iron in the ore into iron metal.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work