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HCl and Mg Rates of Reaction Investigation

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Introduction

Chemistry Background Knowledge and Research There are two possibilities for increasing the rate of reaction: 1. The activation energy is reduced so that there is a better chance of particles having enough energy to react. Reactants will need less energy to react. 2. The number and strength of collisions is increased so that the reaction can happen faster. If the particles have more energy then more particles will be able to react. Solid reactants like marble chips are effected by surface area, the larger the surface area the more collisions that will take place. This will increase the rate of reaction and decrease the time taken. Liquid/ Aqueous reactants rely on collisions for more collisions to take place. In a concentrated acid solution there are more acid particles so more collisions will take place. There will be an increase in the product formed in a certain time. Concentration Aim The aim is to find out if changing the concentration of the hydrochloric acid solution has an effect on the time taken for the reaction Prediction The more concentrated the acid then the quicker the reaction will take place, because there will be more HCl particles than water particles for the marble chips to collide with and therefore react. More collisions between the two reactants (HCl and CaCO ) will take place resulting in a quicker time for the reaction. I predict that if the concentration of the HCl is doubled then the experiment will happen twice as fast. This is because twice as many HCl particles will be present than previously and there will be twice as much chance of the calcium carbonate chips colliding with the concentrated hydrochloric acid. ...read more.

Middle

In general, reactions in which ions (electrically charged particles) combine or separate occur very rapidly, while those in which covalent bonds are formed or broken are much slower. For a given set of reactants, the speed of the reaction will vary with the temperature or pressure imposed on the reacting system and the amounts of reactants used. Ordinarily the reaction will gradually slow down as the reactants become depleted. In some cases the addition of a substance not itself a reactant, called a catalyst, accelerates a reaction that normally takes place at a very low rate. The reaction-rate constant, or the specific rate constant, is the proportionality constant in the equation that describes the relationship between the rate of a chemical reaction and the concentrations of the reacting substances. If r represents reaction rate, k is the symbol customarily used for the reaction-rate constant, and f(C) is an expression for the concentrations of the reactants, then the equation for these values is r = kf(C). If the reaction rate, or velocity, is visualized as being determined by two factors, one representing the amount of molecules present and the other the type and the condition of those molecules, then the rate constant is a quantity that represents the latter. The prediction, measurement, and interpretation of reaction rates are subjects of the branch of chemistry known as chemical kinetics. Reactions usually require collisions between reactant molecules or atoms. The formation of bonds requires atoms to come close to one another. New bonds can form only if the atoms are close enough together to share electrons. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is because I got all the results that I expected and they look very conclusive. I felt I have accurate results to the best of my ability and so I am able to make a good conclusion. From looking at my results I can see that there were no poor results which was a good thing and it proves that everything went very well. The only possibility of error was if the temperature of the acid had changed from when I did the first reading to the end i.e. from when I did the first experiment the room temperature did not change and, hopefully the acid would have been the same temperature. From looking at my results and graph I am able to conclude that the more concentrated the acid the quicker the reaction happened and the more gas was produced. As we look at the graph we can clearly see that in all results that as the molarity got higher the reaction speeded up. Before I did the experiments I predicted that the more concentrated the hydrochloric acid was the quicker the carbon dioxide would be produced. This was completely correct because what I thought would happen did. At this point I am able to answer my main hypothesis which was how does changing the concentration of acid affect the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate? The answer to this would be that by changing the concentration of the hydrochloric acid it will either make the rate of reaction slower or quicker and more or less gas would be produced depending on whether the concentrations were more or less. ...read more.

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