• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10

HCl and Mg Rates of Reaction Investigation

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Chemistry Background Knowledge and Research There are two possibilities for increasing the rate of reaction: 1. The activation energy is reduced so that there is a better chance of particles having enough energy to react. Reactants will need less energy to react. 2. The number and strength of collisions is increased so that the reaction can happen faster. If the particles have more energy then more particles will be able to react. Solid reactants like marble chips are effected by surface area, the larger the surface area the more collisions that will take place. This will increase the rate of reaction and decrease the time taken. Liquid/ Aqueous reactants rely on collisions for more collisions to take place. In a concentrated acid solution there are more acid particles so more collisions will take place. There will be an increase in the product formed in a certain time. Concentration Aim The aim is to find out if changing the concentration of the hydrochloric acid solution has an effect on the time taken for the reaction Prediction The more concentrated the acid then the quicker the reaction will take place, because there will be more HCl particles than water particles for the marble chips to collide with and therefore react. More collisions between the two reactants (HCl and CaCO ) will take place resulting in a quicker time for the reaction. I predict that if the concentration of the HCl is doubled then the experiment will happen twice as fast. This is because twice as many HCl particles will be present than previously and there will be twice as much chance of the calcium carbonate chips colliding with the concentrated hydrochloric acid. ...read more.

Middle

In general, reactions in which ions (electrically charged particles) combine or separate occur very rapidly, while those in which covalent bonds are formed or broken are much slower. For a given set of reactants, the speed of the reaction will vary with the temperature or pressure imposed on the reacting system and the amounts of reactants used. Ordinarily the reaction will gradually slow down as the reactants become depleted. In some cases the addition of a substance not itself a reactant, called a catalyst, accelerates a reaction that normally takes place at a very low rate. The reaction-rate constant, or the specific rate constant, is the proportionality constant in the equation that describes the relationship between the rate of a chemical reaction and the concentrations of the reacting substances. If r represents reaction rate, k is the symbol customarily used for the reaction-rate constant, and f(C) is an expression for the concentrations of the reactants, then the equation for these values is r = kf(C). If the reaction rate, or velocity, is visualized as being determined by two factors, one representing the amount of molecules present and the other the type and the condition of those molecules, then the rate constant is a quantity that represents the latter. The prediction, measurement, and interpretation of reaction rates are subjects of the branch of chemistry known as chemical kinetics. Reactions usually require collisions between reactant molecules or atoms. The formation of bonds requires atoms to come close to one another. New bonds can form only if the atoms are close enough together to share electrons. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is because I got all the results that I expected and they look very conclusive. I felt I have accurate results to the best of my ability and so I am able to make a good conclusion. From looking at my results I can see that there were no poor results which was a good thing and it proves that everything went very well. The only possibility of error was if the temperature of the acid had changed from when I did the first reading to the end i.e. from when I did the first experiment the room temperature did not change and, hopefully the acid would have been the same temperature. From looking at my results and graph I am able to conclude that the more concentrated the acid the quicker the reaction happened and the more gas was produced. As we look at the graph we can clearly see that in all results that as the molarity got higher the reaction speeded up. Before I did the experiments I predicted that the more concentrated the hydrochloric acid was the quicker the carbon dioxide would be produced. This was completely correct because what I thought would happen did. At this point I am able to answer my main hypothesis which was how does changing the concentration of acid affect the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate? The answer to this would be that by changing the concentration of the hydrochloric acid it will either make the rate of reaction slower or quicker and more or less gas would be produced depending on whether the concentrations were more or less. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    In this investigation we are going to measure the rate of reaction of marble ...

    3 star(s)

    20 10 10 9 13 11 9-11 40 15 17 18 19 17 15-19 60 20 23 21 23 22 20-23 80 26 30 27 29 28 26-30 100 32 37 35 32 34 32-37 120 35 44 42 38 40 35-44 140 42 50 52 42 47 42-52 160

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Reaction Rates Investigation

    3 star(s)

    28 35 39 44 47 52 56 1.4 10 24 40 44 49 55 58 59 60 1.6 23 35 48 53 57 59 60 61 61 1.8 34 46 51 56 59 60 61 61 61 The second experiment we conducted was to take into consideration that the surface

  1. The aim of the investigation is to examine the kinetics involved in the reactions ...

    x 8.31 =+41383.80 J mol-1 = +41383.80 /1000 = +41.3838 = +41.40 kJ mol-1 It is now possible to compare and contrast the data from the activation energies calculated above to reach some conclusions about the experiments. The activation energy for the weak acid was stronger than that of the hydrochloric acid.

  2. How does the activation enthalpy and the rate of the iodine-clock reaction vary with ...

    results, hence a new approach was adopted when the practical was being carried out. Instead of using the 0.1M solution, it was decided that a much more dilute solution should be used. The average volume of a pipette drop was calculated using the balance and water (it was 19 ml),

  1. Find out how the rate of hydrolysis of an organic halogen compound depends on ...

    This means that compounds such as CFCs can stay around long enough to get into the stratosphere and begin to damage the ozone layer. Bromo and iodo compounds are fairly reactive. Substitution reactions of haloalkanes: Substitution reactions of haloalkanes are typical.

  2. To investigate the factors which affect the rate of reaction between marble chips and ...

    Total time for reaction Average Rate of reaction Medium (9-12mm) 100 cm3 240 sec 100-240=0.41 cm3 /s Small (2-4mm) 100 cm3 75 sec 100-75=1.33 cm3 /s Powdered 98 cm3 55 sec 98-55=1.78 cm3 /s 3rd Experiment Size of chips Mass (g)

  1. Rates of Reaction - HCl + Mg

    Catalyst: A catalyst gives the reactants a surface to stick to where they can collide with each other. This definitely increases the amount of collisions. Also, catalysts increase the rate of reaction by helping break chemical bonds in reactant metals and provide a 'different pathway' for the reaction.

  2. An Investigation: Factors That Affect The Rate Of Reaction between Calcium carbonate and Hydrochloric ...

    We measured this by using an electronic balance and we used 1.5M of hydrochloric acid of a volume of 30ml by using a measuring cylinder which allowed us to measure the volume accurately. The forth experiment we used small calcium chips with the mass of 1.5g.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work