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HCL and sodium thiosulphate - investigate which factors affect the rate of reaction.

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Introduction

HCL and sodium thiosulphate In my investigation I am going to investigate which factors affect the rate of reaction. The rate of reaction depends on four factors and these are the possible factors which I could investigate. � Temperature � Concentration � Catalyst � Size of particles (surface area) I have chosen to investigate the concentration of hydrochloric acid and how it affects the rate of reaction of Sodium Thiosulphate. To make my experiment a fair test I am going to use the same solutions. I will repeat the experiment again so that I will have two pairs of results and then get an average set of results. This will allow me to have a set of accurate results. Analysis: As I mentioned before, the rates of reaction depends on four things. All four methods of increasing the rate of reaction can be explained in terms of increasing the number of collisions. Temperature increases the number of collisions. When the temperature is increased, the particles all move quicker. If they're moving quicker, they're going to have more collisions. Reactions only happen if the particles collide with enough energy. At a higher temperature there will be more particles colliding with enough energy to make the reaction happen. ...read more.

Middle

A collision will be effective in producing chemical change only if the species brought together own a minimum value of internal energy, equal to the activation energy of the reaction. Furthermore, the colliding species must be positional so that they will suit the atoms and electrons. Therefore, according to the collision theory, the rate at which a chemical reaction proceeds is equal to the frequency of effective collisions. Because atomic or molecular frequencies of collisions can be calculated with some degree of accuracy only for gases (by application of the kinetic theory), the application of the collision theory is limited to gas- phase reactions. The kinetic theory is the simplest model which is based on the assumptions that 1. The gas is composed of a large number of identical molecules moving in random directions, separated by distances that are large compared with their size. 2. The molecules undergo perfectly elastic collisions with each other and with the walls of the container (without any energy loss, but otherwise do not interact; and 3. The transfer of kinetic theory between molecules is heat. These simplifying assumptions bring the characteristics of gases within the range of mathematical treatment. To do my experiment I need the following equipment: Flask, Measuring cylinder, Beaker 1, Beaker 2, Stop watch, Paper with cross marked on it and Goggles. ...read more.

Conclusion

Evaluation: I believe that I do have an accurate set of results and that I do have enough results to be sure about my conclusion. My results are accurate because when I read the collision theory it told me exactly what my results told me. I do not have any anomalous results which do not fit in the pattern because my predictions coordinated with my results very well. My method of carrying out my experiment was fairly accurate. I made sure that I washed the beakers clean for the other two concentrations and the second experiment, I measured the same amount of solution in each time and I stopped the stopwatch as soon as I thought the cross had disappeared. I think that I should have used four different beakers for the four different concentrations because this would be fairer and there wouldn't be any water at the bottom of the beaker. If I was to do the experiment again I could improve the accuracy and reliability of my results by having a range of different concentrations. Also I could use the same amount of beakers for the number of different concentrations I use. If I had more time I could do extra experiments to investigate another factor such as the affects of temperature on a rate of reaction. Also I could investigate the affects of pressure on a rate of reaction ...read more.

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