• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13

HEART DISEASE The heart pumps blood around the body, supplying oxygen to all the organs, including the heart itself.

Extracts from this document...


HEART DISEASE The heart pumps blood around the body, supplying oxygen to all the organs, including the heart itself. The vessels that carry blood to the heart muscle are called coronary arteries (1). There are two sides to the heart, each of which acts as a separate pump. The two halves are sub-divided into four chambers, so there are four chambers in all (2). A healthy heart will function in this way, but disruptions along the cardiac cycle can cause serious problems to the heart and lead to conditions, such as Heart disease. Coronary heart disease or (CHD) is more common in the elderly and affects 4 times more men than women according to recent studies (2). Coronary heart disease comes in two main forms: heart attack and angina. The coronary arteries become narrow with the build-up of fatty deposits, which may build-up over the course of 20-30 years. This will reduce the flow of blood to the heart and increases the chances of a blood clot blocking the artery, and becoming lodged in the coronary vessel. The blood cannot reach the heart muscle beyond this clot and a section of the heart then dies. ...read more.


The warning signs of a heart attack include a crushing pain in the centre of your chest, which spreads to the shoulders, neck or arms. It also makes you feel breathless and dizzy, and a feeling of nausea. The skin may also be clammy to the touch, and have a grey appearance (3). You will also have an increased or irregular heart rate (palpitations) during a heart attack. If a heart attack affects the bottom of the heart and affects less than 10% this would be considered a mild attack, but if more than 40% of the heart is damaged then death can occur (6). A heart attack is a signal that some lifestyle changes need to be made, like eating a healthier diet, exercise and if you smoke then you should quit. The most common symptom of arrhythmias is 'palpitations' the awareness of the heartbeat. It will occur as a beating that is hard enough to be felt in the chest and the upper abdomen. The causes for arrhythmias and palpitations are lack of sleep, stress, caffeine and nicotine and over the counter medicines (decongestants) or medications related to a heart condition (7). ...read more.


This will help the artery work well and prevent further complications. These procedures can be prevented if lifestyle changes could be made before too much damage has been done. Coronary heart disease can be inherited through our parent's genes. We can inherit high cholesterol, high blood pressure or diabetes from our families. Similar lifestyles can contribute to the disease being passed down, like eating the same food, or if the parents smoke, then often their children do as well (2). Many suffers that have inherited CHD can change their lifestyles so that their condition can be managed more effectively. If they are smokers, then it would be beneficial to them if they quit, or at least reduce their tobacco intake. Changes in their eating habits (healthy eating) would also help reduce the cholesterol levels instead of increasing them. Alcohol levels can also be controlled to prevent further complications, and by reducing the alcohol intake by 2-3 units per day, as this would be the normal recommended daily amount, instead of a large intake which can poison the heart and cause serious consequences to the individual. Controlling stress levels and participating in exercise can assist with reducing high blood pressure and making it more manageable and this would be beneficial to prolonging life and reducing the effects of coronary heart disease. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Humans as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Humans as Organisms essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Myocardial infarction

    5 star(s)

    Risk Factors Much of our cardiovascular disease is preventable. Certain factors can increase your risk for heart disease and stroke. Some of these factors you cannot change (referred to as "nonmodifiable risk factors"), and some you can change to reduce your risk (referred to as "modifiable risk factors")

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Investigate the effect of altitude training on the density of blood.

    4 star(s)

    This amount of oxygen is sufficient for the process under normal conditions. This is because cellular respiration converts the energy in chemical bonds into energy that can be used to power body processes. Glucose is the molecule mainly used to fuel this process.

  1. Human biology short notes

    diffuse through the cellulose tube if t is above the concentration gradient Coordination Nervous system * The nervous system is a system containing a network of specialized cells called neuron which carry impulses form the CNS to the Peripheral nervous system and vise versa Central Nervous System (CNS)

  2. List the effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system, including the cardiac cycle and ...

    The blood will then flow back through the venules and veins, where the total cross-sectional area decreases which results in an increase in velocity. So during exercise the blood flow will increase or decrease at different stages. The more exercise you perform then the rate of our blood flow will

  1. The Biological and Psychological Impact of Smoking Cigarettes

    A battery of critical regulatory genes control this process in much the same way you control the speed of a car -- some genes act as accelerators, others as brakes. Cancer results when a gene mutation occurs that stamps on the accelerator or removes the brakes.

  2. Should people with diabetes 2 receive medical treatment?

    Obesity is an accumulation of fat in the body to the point that one is at risk of diseases that can damage your health and shorten your life, such as heart disease and diabetes. For medical purposes, the body mass index (BMI)

  1. Factors affecting the Development of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD).

    (Understanding Biology). Aneurysm: -This is a different form of arterial blockage, formed when the arterial wall is weakened by the atheroma mentioned previously, and it develops to form a balloon like structure. On severe weakening the aneurysm may cause wall to rupture resulting in an internal haemorrhage-blocking the artery.

  2. Factors Affecting the Development of Coronary Heart Disease.

    It is believed that this process begins even before we are born; researchers have established that arteriosclerosis (the process that leads to narrowings) can begin in the first year of life. Once the process has begun the narrowing grows unevenly over time.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work