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Heat of Neutralization

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Introduction

Sc1 Investigation Paul Robinson Heat of Neutralization Planning Neutralization is the reaction between an acid and an alkali to give water and salt. Acid + alkali salt + water Acids have hydrogen ions as the only positive ions, H +. Alkalis have hydroxide ions as the only negative ions, OH -. Neutralization is the reaction between hydrogen + ions and hydroxide - ions to give water. H+ + OH - H2O Neutralization is exothermic, which means that during neutralization heat is Given out as the bonds in the water are made. A reaction is the collision of particles. In neutralization it is between OH - and H+ ions. This can be shown through this simple diagram. OH- ions H+ ions Provided the OH- ions are in excess, it will increase the molarity which, in turn will increase the temperature. Therefore my final graph should look Like this: Concentration However with higher concentrations of acids, water molecules get in the way of the hydrogen and the hydroxide ions, slowing down neutralization. ...read more.

Middle

"Repeat this four times and take an average so accurate results are given "Any results which seem inappropriate will be re done." "Repeat using a range of concentrations (0.0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, and 2.0) and make well in advance so they can come to room temperature." I need to always keep the same volume and molarity of sodium hydroxide, to control the amount of hydroxide ions. The volume of the hydrochloric acid needs to be kept the same; however the molarity must be varied in order to vary the hydrogen ions. Analyzing Evidence As the molarity increases, the temperature rise increases. This means that there are more hydrogen ions. Therefore there are more collisions and the temperature rises. I have two construction lines on my graph. One shows the molarity at 1.0 mol dm -3 and has a temperature rise of 6.6oC; the other shows the molarity at 2.0 mol dm-3 and has a temperature rise of 13.2oC. ...read more.

Conclusion

I feel that the way that I preformed this experiment was suitable; however the general use of the thermometer could have been improved. A digital thermometer could have been used, that would have recorded the results to an accuracy of 0.1 decimal place instead of 0.5, which is what I recorded my results to. I also feel that my final results were good enough to support my original prediction; however I also thought that at high concentrations, the graph reading would trail off, due to there being more water molecules getting in the way of the hydrogen and hydroxide ions, which in turn would slow down the process Of neutralization. To investigate whether my prediction was correct, I could use higher concentrations of sodium hydroxide. For example, I could use 5.0 mol dm-3 instead of 2.0 mol dm-3, which is the highest concentration that I used in my experiment. If I was to increase the molarity of the sodium hydroxide I would also need To increase the molarity of the hydrochloric acid to 5.0 mol dm-3. ...read more.

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