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How an enzyme controlled reaction can be affected by the

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Introduction

How an enzyme controlled reaction can be affected by the Substrate concentration By Michael Holland How an enzyme controlled reaction can be affected by the Substrate concentration 2H O �2H O+O Catalase Hydrogen peroxide� water + oxygen Aim of the investigation From this investigation I hope to find out how the speed of reaction with a catalase (yeast) can be affected by the concentration of substrate. (I used Hydrogen Peroxide) Explanation Enzymes are protein molecules that speed up chemical reactions by up to (approximately) 10,000,000,000 times. They do this by breaking down large molecules into smaller ones; others join small molecules into bigger ones. (Breakers/builders) Enzymes work on substances called substrates. The reaction takes place on a part of the enzyme called the active site. Prediction I think that the higher the concentration of substrate, (hydrogen peroxide) the greater the rate and volume of the reaction will be. Variables Independent Variables Dependant Variables Control Variables What Effect these Factors could have �Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide. �Amount of gas produced and the rate at which collected. �Temperature �Amount of substrate used (Hydrogen peroxide) �Amount of catalase used (yeast) �If it is warmer the reaction is sped up and slowed if it's colder. ...read more.

Middle

I made sure that I wore safety goggles at all times, cleared the area of anything that could get in the way (stools, bags etc.) and was extra careful when handling the Hydrogen Peroxide. Results 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 27 32 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 5% 5 23 38 45 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 2 27 41 46 49 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 5 22 45 75 85 90 100 100 100 100 100 100 10% 15 60 90 95 96 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 10 40 52 75 85 88 91 91 91 91 91 91 18 63 100 115 130 140 148 150 154 154 154 154 15% 22 50 77 95 112 125 135 138 140 142 142 142 30 60 87 105 122 128 130 134 134 134 134 134 40 85 115 145 165 171 175 176 176 176 176 176 20% 30 100 135 154 165 168 170 170 170 170 170 170 45 100 130 160 165 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 Time (seconds) ...read more.

Conclusion

This was due to my results not being accurate enough to make the calculations secure. The other thing that made this difficult was that we instead of measuring for a set amount of time say 2 minutes; we just measured the amount produced until it stopped. This meant that I could not reliably work out averages after a certain point. That is not to say that my investigation was perfect, far from it. Throughout the experiment there were many things that are likely to have caused inaccuracies in my results. The thing most likely to have had the biggest effect on my results was the lack of large measuring cylinders. Because of this on the higher concentrations when the first cylinder was filled with gas, I had to change to another cylinder. Though this was done as quickly as possible, a large amount of gas will still have been lost through doing this. Another inaccuracy was trying to read the measurements of the measuring cylinders as it was difficult to see properly. To solve this I could have used a syringe to collect the gas instead of a measuring cylinder. This would have made it easier to read the results and so it would have been read out exactly every ten seconds. Solving these problems would have given me far more accurate results, and therefore, a more accurate conclusion. ...read more.

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