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How changing concentration affect rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate?

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Introduction

How does changing concentration affect the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate? In my experiment, I am aiming to find out how and why different concentrations of hydrochloric acid affect calcium carbonate chips. CaCO3 + 2HCl � CaCl2 + CO2 +H2O Apparatus List * Side arm test tube (10ml) * Hydrochloric acid * Distilled water * Calcium Carbonate Chips/powder (3 chip sizes) * Delivery tube * Water * Bung * Measuring Cylinder (10ml) * Measuring Cylinder (100ml) * Container * Stopwatch * Test Tube Rack * Weighing Scales (2 d.p) * Clamp * Stand Here is how I set up my apparatus; Method * I filled a container 2/3 full. * I filled a 100ml measuring cylinder with water and turned it upside down in the container and attached the other end of the cylinder to the clamp. * I put the test tube in the test tube rack and attached the delivery tube to side. I put the other end of the delivery tube in the upturned measuring cylinder. * I put 3 grams of medium sized marble chips (which I measured with a 2 decimal place set of scales) into the test tube. * I measured 2ml hydrochloric acid using a 10ml measuring cylinder into the test tube. ...read more.

Middle

Volume of Gas Controlled Collect same volume of gas for all results If I collect different volumes of gas, I wont be able to tell which concentrations make the reaction the fastest/slowest Concentration of Acid Input n/a n/a Rate of Diffusion Controlled Keep room same temperature, keep away from heaters or windows. Keep temperature the same for every experiment. Heat gives particles energy which increases chance of collisions and affects the rate of reaction. So a hotter room means a faster reaction, a colder room means a slower reaction. Time taken to collect gas Output n/a n/a Measuring solutions Controlled Measure off a flat surface, measure at eye level at the meniscus I need to use the correct amount/proportions of solutions to get my results as accurate as possible. Bung Controlled Put a bung on the test tube immediately after adding the HCl. Stops gas escaping out the test tube to make sure all gas is collected in the measuring cylinder. All the variables are controlled apart from the input and output variable as they will all affect the rate of reaction. As I am trying to find out how concentration affects the rate of reaction I need to control all other variables so that they do not affect my results. ...read more.

Conclusion

Not all of the chips were exactly the same size. Different size chips will have a larger/smaller surface area which will affect the rate of reaction. I used medium sized chips which were 5-9mm. To improve this I could use chips that were 5-6mm. Using the size of chips that I did it was difficult to get the chips to exactly 2g. I could have used scales with 3 decimal places rather than 2 to improve this. When I was measuring out my different concentrations of acid, it was difficult to get each concentration exactly right. Also when collecting the gas it was difficult to accurately stop the time after 30cm� gas had been collected. The measuring cylinders are only accurate to 0.5cm�. If I was to repeat my experiment I could use a gas syringe which is more accurate than a measuring cylinder. Also, I only measured the rate at 7 different concentrations. To give me more accurate results, I could have used more concentrations. E.g every 0.1 mol/dm� instead of every 0.2 mol/dm�. Finally I could have done more than 3 repeats to give me a more accurate average. If I had used higher concentrations, at a certain point, the rate would not get any faster because no more acid particles would be able to hit the surface of the calcium carbonate. Therefore on a graph my line of best fit would level off. ...read more.

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