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How concentration will affect the rate of a chemical reaction.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Aim: To find out how concentration will affect the rate of a chemical reaction. Scientific Knowledge: The rate of reaction is the rate of loss of a reactant or the rate of formation of a product during a chemical reaction. It is measured by dividing 1 by the time taken for the reaction to take place. There are five factors, which affect the rate of a reaction, according to the collision theory of reacting particles: > temperature, > concentration (of solution) > pressure (in gases) > surface area (of solid reactants) > catalysts Collision Theory: For a reaction to take place between two chemicals, they need to collide with each other with enough energy and in the correct way. Here are explanations of four of the affecting factors, which affect the rate of reaction; 1: Concentration: If the concentration increases, the number of reacting particles increases. This means that successful collisions are more likely so the rate of reaction increases. blue particles at blue particles at low concentration higher concentration 2: Temperature: The particles at higher temperature move faster so they are more likely to collide with more energy increasing the chance of a successful reaction. particles at high particles at low temperature temperature 3: Pressure: When the volume increases, the pressure increases. When the particles are at higher pressure, they are more likely to collide with each other. 4: Surface Area: If a substance has a high surface area, then all its particles are able to reach. If a substance has a low surface area, then not all the particles are able to reach making the rate slower. Preliminary work I have chosen to investigate the effect concentration has on a reaction. This is because it is the most practical to investigate - it would take longer to prepare a solid in powdered and non-powdered form, and it is difficult to get accurate readings due to the inevitabilities of human errors. Apparatus: Test tube x 3 Timer Stand (to hold test tubes) ...read more.

Middle

They are: 1. Wear goggles during the experiment. 2. Use the correct equipment to ensure that I don't endanger myself when using acid. 3. Wear gloves when handling the acid, and make sure none gets onto my skin or into my eyes, as it is an irritant. Fair Test: To make this experiment a fair test, I must ensure I am using the correct amount of hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate each time. I must have allocated pipettes for the water, hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate because if one chemical gets into another chemical beaker, then a chemical reaction will start to take place. It will then not be accurate when we dilute our sodium thiosulphate concentration, and when we do each experiment. I must also use a timer to get as accurate timings as possible. Prediction: I predict that the higher the concentration, the faster the reaction will be. This prediction is based on the collision theory's affecting factor, concentration. If the concentration increases, the number of reacting particles increases. This means that successful collisions are more likely so the rate of reaction increases. I predict that although the concentration halves each time, the average time will not exactly half because as the concentration is weaker, it takes a longer time for all the particles to collide. Looking back at the difference between the timings for the preliminary work using the magnesium ribbon, I think that the difference between these timings will also be quite a lot, meaning not a difference of a few seconds, but a difference of a minute or more each time. I also think that the difference will gradually get more as the concentration decreases, this is probably because there may not even be enough reacting particles to have a full successful reaction. Results: Concentration 1st attempt (secs) 2nd attempt (secs) 3rd attempt (secs) Average Time (secs) 0.10M 226.04 170.47 160.88 185.80 0.09M 256.79 181.26 186.04 208.03 0.08M 311.32 197.64 206.57 238.51 0.07M 361.05 215.17 233.14 269.79 0.06M 400.56 ...read more.

Conclusion

3. Using a stopwatch, record how long the reaction takes until the cross disappears. 4. Then fill another flask of 20cm3 of sodium thiosulphate, and 20cm3 of hydrochloric acid at a concentration of 0.09M. 5. Using a stopwatch, record how long the reaction takes until the cross disappears. 6. Then fill another flask of 20cm3 of sodium thiosulphate, and 20cm3 of sodium thiosulphate at a concentration of 0.08M. 7. Using a stopwatch, record how long the reaction takes until the cross disappears. 8. Then fill another flask of 20cm3 of sodium thiosulphate, and 20cm3 of hydrochloric acid at a concentration of 0.07M. 9. Using a stopwatch, record how long the reaction takes until the cross disappears. 10. Then fill another flask of 20cm3 of sodium thiosulphate, and 20cm3 of hydrochloric acid at a concentration of 0.06M. 11. Using a stopwatch, record how long the reaction takes until the cross disappears. 12. Then fill another flask of 20cm3 of sodium thiosulphate, and 20cm3 of sodium thiosulphate at a concentration of 0.05M. 13. Using a stopwatch, record how long the reaction takes until the cross disappears. 14. Then fill another flask of 20cm3 of sodium thiosulphate, and 20cm3 of hydrochloric acid at a concentration of 0.04M. 15. Using a stopwatch, record how long the reaction takes until the cross disappears. 16. Now repeat the entire experiment two more times to get three sets of answers to calculate an average. Note: To get a solution of x concentration, you calculate (1000x)% of 20, and use that amount of sodium thiosulphate. You then add the remaining amount to add up to 20ml of water. Below is a table showing the amounts that will be used in the experiment: Concentration (M) Hydrochloric Acid (cm3) Water (cm3) 0.10 20 0 0.09 18 2 0.08 16 4 0.07 14 6 0.06 12 8 0.05 10 10 0.04 8 12 Apparatus: Conical flask Hydrochloric acid Sodium thiosulphate Water Measuring cylinder Paper with an "x" on it Pipettes Timer Jayni Shah 11R ...read more.

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