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How Does Acid Concentration Affect the Rate of Reaction of Magnesium with Dilute Hydrochloric Acid?

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Introduction

HOW DOES ACID CONCENTRATION AFFECT THE RATE OF REACTION OF MAGNESIUM WITH DILUTE HYDROCHLORIC ACID? -Chemistry Coursework- HOW DOES ACID CONCENTRATION AFFECT THE RATE OF REACTION OF MAGNESIUM WITH DILUTE HYDROCHLORIC ACID? PLANNING: Aim: The aim of this experiment is to investigate the affect that concentration has on the rate of reaction between magnesium and dilute hydrochloric acid. Background Information: In a chemical reaction, there are two key components. The initial components, the reactants, are known as the starting chemicals. The resulting components are the products, as they are the chemicals made during a chemical reaction. When Magnesium (Mg) is placed into dilute Hydrochloric Acid (HCl), it reacts to form Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2) and Hydrogen gas (H2). The balanced symbol equation for this reaction is as follows: Mg (s) + 2HCl (aq) � MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) Magnesium (Mg) is in group 2 of the Periodic Table of Elements. All elements in this group have two electrons in their outermost shell. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is an aqueous solution because it is Hydrogen Chloride, dissolved in water (H2O). Hydrochloric acid is made up of Hydrogen and Chlorine. H2 + Cl2 � 2HCl Hydrogen is not classified in any set group as it shares many different properties with other elements. Chlorine is in group 7 of the Periodic Table as it has 7 electrons in its outermost shell. Hydrochloric acid is referred to as an ionic compound because of the ionic bond holding the Hydrogen (H+) ions and Chlorine (Cl-) ions. An ionic bond is a chemical bond formed when one atom transfers electrons to another atom. When Magnesium is placed in Hydrochloric acid, it displaces the Hydrogen atom to form an ionic compound called Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2). For this reaction to occur, the bonds between the elements in a compound need to be overcome. The rate at which this takes place is referred to as the rate of reaction. ...read more.

Middle

For each beaker, I dropped the 1 centimetre strip of magnesium and started the stopwatch as soon as the strip touched the water. As the magnesium was fizzing, I stirred the acid quickly with the glass stirring rod. This method ensured that the magnesium did not surface and affect my results by being exposed to the outside air. As soon as the fizzing stopped, I stopped the stopwatch and recorded the time in minutes, which was later converted into seconds. Results: Acid Concentrations (M) Acid (cm�) Water (cm�) Time Taken for Reaction to Complete "Rate" (=1000 / Average time) (s-1) #1 (s) # 2 (s) # 3 (s) Average [(#1)+(#2)+(#3)] 3 (s) 0.25 10 30 1052 1486 1067 1201.7 0.8 0.50 20 20 376 435 439 416.7 2.4 0.75 30 10 159 185 173 172.3 5.8 1.00 40 0 70 75 69 71.3 14 ANALYSING: Analysis: All of the twelve, 1 centimetre strips of magnesium were completely dissolved in the four different hydrochloric acid concentrations. The following observations were made about the results: * The results found from the 0.25 M hydrochloric acid concentration proved to be the slowest of all the concentrations. On average, it took 1201.7 seconds for one, 1 centimetre strip of magnesium to completely dissolve. For this concentration, there were two readings that were within 15 seconds of each other, 1052 seconds and 1067 seconds respectively. However, there was one result that took 1486 seconds, approximately 427 seconds faster than the other two. In 1000 seconds, this reaction would have taken place 1201.7 times, so therefore the rate of reaction: =(1000 / 1201.7) = 0.8 (s-) * The results found from the 0.5 M hydrochloric acid concentration proved to be considerably faster than those in the 0.25 M concentration did. On average, it took 416.7 seconds for one, 1 centimetre strip of magnesium to completely dissolve. In this concentration, there are 25% more reacting particles than the 0.25 M concentration, yet the reaction takes 65.3% less time to complete. ...read more.

Conclusion

I would have liked to record the mass of each magnesium strip before dissolving it in the hydrochloric acid. I would have also liked to use smaller intervals between the concentrations of acid, possibly 0.1 M increments of concentrations. I could have also used four or five magnesium strips per solution. This would have produced a much wider range of data and allowed me to have a stronger conclusion. I would have like to have used different methods of recording evidence for the rate of reaction of magnesium and hydrochloric acid. I could have performed the experiment in a conical flask that had a rubber stopper with a gas syringe inserted through the middle of the stopper. I would have dropped the magnesium strip in the flask of acid, started the clock and replace the rubber stopper at the same time. I would have then recorded the volume of the gas syringe 10 - 15 seconds to observe how quickly the rate of reaction occurs over a period of time, as well as how long it takes for the reaction to complete. This may have proved to be much more accurate in measuring the rate of reaction. I would have liked to have observed the affects that other variables have on the rate of reaction. If I had chopped the strips, or grinded them down to small shavings, I would have been able to observe the affect that surface area has on the rate of reaction. If I had heated one concentration to several different temperatures, I could have observed the affect that temperature has on the rate of reaction. Using different substances would have given me a wider spectrum of knowledge on the rate of reaction. I could have used Magnesium, M (s), and Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4 (aq), or Hydrochloric acid, HCl (aq), with Calcium Carbonate, CaCO3 (s). I feel that I have gained a sound understanding of how the rate of reaction is affected by concentration. ?? ?? ?? ?? - 1 - ...read more.

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