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How does changing the concentration of acid affect the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate?

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Introduction

How does changing the concentration of acid affect the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate? Introduction During any chemical reaction the concentrations of the reactants decrease and the concentration of products increase with time. The rate of reaction (reaction velocity) may be defined as the rate of change of concentration of a stated reactant or product. The rate of a reaction is found by measuring the amount of a reactant used up per unit of time or the amount of a product produced per unit of time. A reaction can be made to go faster or slower by changing a number of factors. In order for a reaction to occur it is necessary that: particles must collide with each other and the collision must have enough energy. If this happens the original bonds are broken and new bonds are formed - so that new products are formed. Successful collisions (those with sufficient energy) can be increased (or decreased) by a number of factors. The rate of reaction can be changed in four ways: - � Altering the surface area of the reactants � Changing the concentration/pressure of the reactants � Altering the temperature at which the reaction takes place � Using a catalyst My experiment is going to assess how the concentration of the acid affects the rate of reaction. ...read more.

Middle

This situation may change over time, however, depending on the situation. Equipment List � Conical Flask � Bung With Delivery Tube � Water Bath � Measuring Cylinder(s) � Clamp and Stand � Stopwatch Method Method for collecting results for one concentration of acid Collect equipment as stated previosly and assemble as per diagram Collect 20ml of correct concentration of Hydrochloric Acid and 5g of Calcium Carbonate Chips RESET STOPWATCH. Fill measuring cylinder(s) with water and place downside-up in water bath. Make sure there are no air bubbles present in the cylinder. Place CaCO3 in conical flask. Add HCl and push the bung tightly into the neck of the conical flask. Start the stopwatch as soon as the bung is tightly inside the neck of the flask. Take readings at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 minutes, swapping measuring cylinders over if one fills up. Complete my pre-prepared table at the correct intervals. 2M 0 0 1 30 2 60 3 90 4 115 5 132 6 149 7 162 8 173 9 180 10 187 Concentration of Acid Time (mins) Vol. of CO2 produced 0.1M 0 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 5 9 6 10 8 0.25M ...read more.

Conclusion

There is a potential for error when carrying out a long sequence of activities such as this, alone. I have already mentioned the problem of the gas having to push the water down the delivery tube before the gas was collected. This added time onto the true time taken. This means my results are higher than they should be. This does not question the truth of my conclusion however; as the same thing happened each time I performed the experiment. I could alleviate this problem by only starting the timer when the gas starts to fill the measuring cylinder. This would not include the time taken to push the water down the delivery tube in my results, and I would not have to start the stopwatch at the same time as putting the marble chips in the flask. If the experiment was undertaken more than once for each concentration of acid and an average was taken then the accuracy of my results would have been greatly improved. This would be a serious consideration if I had more time for collecting my results. The ambient temperature of the surroundings could also have affected the results. The room heated up as the lesson went on so the reactions may have gone faster than they should have. ...read more.

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