• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How does changing the concentration of acid affect the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

How does changing the concentration of acid affect the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate? Introduction During any chemical reaction the concentrations of the reactants decrease and the concentration of products increase with time. The rate of reaction (reaction velocity) may be defined as the rate of change of concentration of a stated reactant or product. The rate of a reaction is found by measuring the amount of a reactant used up per unit of time or the amount of a product produced per unit of time. A reaction can be made to go faster or slower by changing a number of factors. In order for a reaction to occur it is necessary that: particles must collide with each other and the collision must have enough energy. If this happens the original bonds are broken and new bonds are formed - so that new products are formed. Successful collisions (those with sufficient energy) can be increased (or decreased) by a number of factors. The rate of reaction can be changed in four ways: - � Altering the surface area of the reactants � Changing the concentration/pressure of the reactants � Altering the temperature at which the reaction takes place � Using a catalyst My experiment is going to assess how the concentration of the acid affects the rate of reaction. ...read more.

Middle

This situation may change over time, however, depending on the situation. Equipment List � Conical Flask � Bung With Delivery Tube � Water Bath � Measuring Cylinder(s) � Clamp and Stand � Stopwatch Method Method for collecting results for one concentration of acid Collect equipment as stated previosly and assemble as per diagram Collect 20ml of correct concentration of Hydrochloric Acid and 5g of Calcium Carbonate Chips RESET STOPWATCH. Fill measuring cylinder(s) with water and place downside-up in water bath. Make sure there are no air bubbles present in the cylinder. Place CaCO3 in conical flask. Add HCl and push the bung tightly into the neck of the conical flask. Start the stopwatch as soon as the bung is tightly inside the neck of the flask. Take readings at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 minutes, swapping measuring cylinders over if one fills up. Complete my pre-prepared table at the correct intervals. 2M 0 0 1 30 2 60 3 90 4 115 5 132 6 149 7 162 8 173 9 180 10 187 Concentration of Acid Time (mins) Vol. of CO2 produced 0.1M 0 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 5 9 6 10 8 0.25M ...read more.

Conclusion

There is a potential for error when carrying out a long sequence of activities such as this, alone. I have already mentioned the problem of the gas having to push the water down the delivery tube before the gas was collected. This added time onto the true time taken. This means my results are higher than they should be. This does not question the truth of my conclusion however; as the same thing happened each time I performed the experiment. I could alleviate this problem by only starting the timer when the gas starts to fill the measuring cylinder. This would not include the time taken to push the water down the delivery tube in my results, and I would not have to start the stopwatch at the same time as putting the marble chips in the flask. If the experiment was undertaken more than once for each concentration of acid and an average was taken then the accuracy of my results would have been greatly improved. This would be a serious consideration if I had more time for collecting my results. The ambient temperature of the surroundings could also have affected the results. The room heated up as the lesson went on so the reactions may have gone faster than they should have. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. How does the concentration of acid affect the rate of a reaction with calcium ...

    The results show what they do as when there is a high concentration there are more particles which are crowded together and are more likely to collide, thus causing more successful collisions to occur. There is a mathematical pattern in my results, and this is; Doubling X doubles Y As

  2. How does changing the concentration of the Hydrochloric acid affect it reactions with Magnesium?

    This graph also does not show the rate increase, it just shows how it increases with a change in concentration. This graph shows that if you increase the concentration of the molar solution of the acid the time in which the Mg takes to disappear becomes a lot slower.

  1. Free essay

    How does Concentration affect the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate

    Gas burette * Flask * Clamp stand * Measuring cylinder * Stop watch And the equipment was laid out like this: This is a step by step guide to our method: * We half filled the plastic tub with water * We filled the measuring cylinder full of water and

  2. Measuring the Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate

    - From then on, every 10 seconds I will note down how much carbon dioxide has been given off. - This will be done until a) all the small chips have been dissolved or b) the gas syringe reaches 100cm� of carbon dioxide before it has all dissolved.

  1. Investigate how changing the surface area of Calcium carbonate affects the rate of reaction ...

    The larger the surface area of the marble, the greater the number of collisions, and hence the rate of the reaction increases. Chemical reactions take place by chance. Particles need to collide with enough velocity so that they react. As the surface area is enlarged the particles have a greater

  2. Investigate the effect of changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid and the volume of ...

    0.5m is the lowest concentration and 4m is the highest concentration. The factors that I will keep constant in the experiment are: * Surface area of marble chips * Temperature - room temperature * The absence of a catalyst * Volume of acid Surface area of marble chips - If

  1. Investigating how the concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid ...

    At greater concentrations, there are more reactants per unit volume; there will be more collisions per second, so more particles reacting per second. The rate of reaction is steady for the first few minutes but then it decreases since the acid is diluted by water produced by the reaction of HCL and marble chips; the concentration of reactants decrease.

  2. Investigating the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate

    Fair test To keep my test fair it is important to maintain the same variables and use the exact measurements repeatedly. variables that can affect the rate of reaction in this investigation are : 1.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work