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How does changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid affect its rate of reaction with magnesium?

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Introduction

How does changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid affect its rate of reaction with magnesium? Aim: The aim of this experiment is to find out how changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid will affect its rate of reaction with magnesium. The rate of a chemical reaction is the time it takes for the reactants to react. I.e. in this experiment I will be monitoring how long it will take for magnesium to react in different concentrations of hydrochloric acid. Explaining chemical reactions In order for a chemical reaction to occur, the following needs to take place: > The particles involved need to collide with each other. > The collision needs to have sufficient energy called activation energy. > Particles have to be in the correct orientation (right way round). There are four factors which affect the rate of reaction between two chemical reactants. 1. Concentration: Increasing the concentration of a reactant, increases the rate of reaction. This is because, in a higher concentration, there are more particles per unit volume, which means that there is a greater chance of a successful collision. Therefore the rate of the reaction between the two reactants will increase. 2. Temperature: Increasing the temperature of a reactant, increases the rate of reaction. This is because a higher temperature means a higher energy level. This makes particles move faster, which means that there is a greater chance of a successful collision. Therefore the rate of the reaction between the two reactants will increase. 3. Surface area: Decreasing the size of solid particles increases the rate of reaction. This is because decreasing the size of solid particles increases their surface area, which means that there is a larger surface area for collisions to occur. Therefore increasing the rate of reaction. 4. Catalysts: A catalyst is a substance which alters the rate of a chemical reaction but is chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction. ...read more.

Middle

After I have recorded all of the readings from the burette, I will convert these results into the volume of hydrogen gas produced by subtracting it from 50. I will then be able to work the rate of reaction between magnesium and HCl in the five different concentrations. After I have recorded all of my results, they will be ready to produce a graph for analysis. Fair test: To ensure a fair test in this experiment, I need to make sure that the following factors are controlled and kept constant throughout the experiment: The temperature needs to be kept constant and I can do this by doing the experiment at room temperature in one session for all of the concentrations. If I do the experiment in different parts, I could be getting inaccurate results because the room temperature may change. I also need to make sure that the amount and surface area of the magnesium is the same for all of the experiments. I will be using a 15 cm magnesium strip, which is uniform (the same size) to ensure a fair test. I will also have to keep the amount of hydrochloric acid solution the same to keep it a fair test. I will have 50cm� of solution in each conical flask. I will also have to make sure that the conical flasks are covered immediately after the magnesium is put in, to ensure that no hydrogen gas escapes. I will be using the same equipment for all of the experiments incase some differ is size or shape. Accuracy: In order to improve the reliability of this experiment, I will repeat it at least twice. I can then find an average of the two results, which will make the overall results more accurate. When measuring the acid and the distilled water I will use the smallest measuring cylinders because they give us a more accurate reading. ...read more.

Conclusion

Other than this, the results I obtained from this experiment are free from any anomalies, which suggest that these results are quite accurate and reliable. The method I chose was the hardest method out of the three I had choice from, but it was also the most accurate. I think I measured the liquids accurately using the measuring cylinders, however, I still think I can improve the accuracy of measurement and perhaps find a new way to measure the liquids more accurately. A pipette could be used instead of a measuring cylinder to improve the accuracy. I think it would have been better if we already had the different concentrations of hydrochloric acid made, because this would save us time and we would be content that these solutions are accurate. However, we can still try to make these solutions in a more accurate way by using smaller measuring cylinders and other measuring equipment. I had also kept a good record of time in the stop clock and I never delayed the reading, which is why I think I didn't have any major anomalous results. To improve the procedure of this experiment, I think there could be a better way to put the magnesium into the conical flask before we start timing. To ensure a fair test, we need to make sure that we start timing exactly when the magnesium is put into the conical flask for every experiment. To stop bubbles from forming in the burette, we could use a gas syringe instead as this will limit the number of trapped bubbles being produced and give us a better reading of the volume of water present. In this experiment, I think the range for the concentrations was fine, but the intervals could have been smaller. We could experiment with 21cm�, 22cm�, 23cm� and 24cm� of hydrochloric acid as well to improve the accuracy of our results. We can also decrease the time intervals to every five seconds instead of 10 seconds. This will ensure that we have more readings and the graph we get will be much more detailed. ...read more.

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