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# How does changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid affect the rate of reaction between the acid and calcium carbonate chips?

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Introduction

Introduction The rate of reaction is a measure of a change that happens in a unit of time. My aim is to measure the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate chips by using different concentrations of hydrochloric acid. The equation for this experiment is I plan to measure the amount of carbon dioxide gas given off every five seconds. Theory According to the collision theory, for molecules to react together they need * To collide * Collide with enough energy to achieve an activated complex. This energy that they need is activation energy. * The right orientation for the reaction to go ahead. Anything that increases the above factors increases the rate of reaction i.e. Temperature, surface area, concentration, pressure and catalysts. 1. The effect of Temperature A reaction can also be made to go faster or slower by changing the temperature of the reactants. The higher the temperature the faster the rate of reaction. This is because heat gives the particles more energy so as to make more successful collisions. This is the reason why the temperature in this experiment is kept constant. 2. The effect of concentration A reaction can also be made to go faster or slower by changing the concentration of the reactant. A reaction goes faster when the concentration of a reactant is increased. It is on this theory that the whole experiment is based on. 3. The effect of Surface area A reaction can also be made to go faster or slower by changing the surface area. ...read more.

Middle

* Carry out the experiment according to the numbering on the table of concentrations. * Repeat the above step once more so that the results can be averaged. This makes the results more reliable. * Draw a graph for all the averaged results obtained from this experiment. I am sure that any variations in the results are due to the changes in the concentration of acid because I have eliminated any other factors which could speed up or slow down the rate of reaction. The table below indicates the variables that changes and the reasons why they change; it also indicates the non-changing variables. Variables that do not change Variables that change Temperature This is kept constant so that it does not affect the rate of reaction. Concentration of the acid This changes as I am trying to determine how the concentration of the acid affects the rate of reaction. Pressure This is negligible, as gases are not involved in the reaction. Although carbon dioxide is a product. Amount of acid This will remain the same. It is only the concentration of the acid that is changing Fair testing I have made sure that the temperature of this reaction is constant by checking the temperature constantly while carrying out the experiment. This is important because heat gives the particles more energy thus allowing more successful collisions to occur more often. This is all done to make sure that the reaction is happening due to the concentration of the acid. This makes sure that the test is fair and there are no other factors affecting the rate of reaction. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is because when I was carrying out the experiment I estimated the size of the chip as I was not sure in anyway of ensuring that the surface area of the marble chip was the same. This experiment could have been more accurate and more reliable if the temperature and the surface area had been kept the same. As I mentioned in the analysis of the results, I had a couple of anomalous results on my graph. I think this happened while I was carrying out the experiment. I noticed that the gas syringe jerked as the reaction took place which made it difficult to read the actual volume made. The other reason is that there could be human error usually known as the parallax error. This is when the results from the syringe are not read accurately. I noticed that when I used the bung to close the flask the syringe moved a little bit making my results inaccurate. This 'bung effect' was inevitable as I tired to correct it but was in vain. I could do further work on this experiment to improve my prediction by using more accurate equipment. I would try to keep the temperature constant by using a water bath. I if had more time I would have carried out the experiment more times and compare the results. This would make the experiment results more reliable and also accurate if the results compare to be similar. I would also use a gas syringe which can handle a greater volume of gas so I could finish the whole experiment. I could use a larger range of acid concentrations so as to have more graphs from which to compare. GCSE Chemistry Coursework The Tuition Centre Bhavin Patel - 1 - ...read more.

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