• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14

How does changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid affect the rate of reaction between the acid and calcium carbonate chips?

Extracts from this document...


Introduction The rate of reaction is a measure of a change that happens in a unit of time. My aim is to measure the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate chips by using different concentrations of hydrochloric acid. The equation for this experiment is I plan to measure the amount of carbon dioxide gas given off every five seconds. Theory According to the collision theory, for molecules to react together they need * To collide * Collide with enough energy to achieve an activated complex. This energy that they need is activation energy. * The right orientation for the reaction to go ahead. Anything that increases the above factors increases the rate of reaction i.e. Temperature, surface area, concentration, pressure and catalysts. 1. The effect of Temperature A reaction can also be made to go faster or slower by changing the temperature of the reactants. The higher the temperature the faster the rate of reaction. This is because heat gives the particles more energy so as to make more successful collisions. This is the reason why the temperature in this experiment is kept constant. 2. The effect of concentration A reaction can also be made to go faster or slower by changing the concentration of the reactant. A reaction goes faster when the concentration of a reactant is increased. It is on this theory that the whole experiment is based on. 3. The effect of Surface area A reaction can also be made to go faster or slower by changing the surface area. ...read more.


* Carry out the experiment according to the numbering on the table of concentrations. * Repeat the above step once more so that the results can be averaged. This makes the results more reliable. * Draw a graph for all the averaged results obtained from this experiment. I am sure that any variations in the results are due to the changes in the concentration of acid because I have eliminated any other factors which could speed up or slow down the rate of reaction. The table below indicates the variables that changes and the reasons why they change; it also indicates the non-changing variables. Variables that do not change Variables that change Temperature This is kept constant so that it does not affect the rate of reaction. Concentration of the acid This changes as I am trying to determine how the concentration of the acid affects the rate of reaction. Pressure This is negligible, as gases are not involved in the reaction. Although carbon dioxide is a product. Amount of acid This will remain the same. It is only the concentration of the acid that is changing Fair testing I have made sure that the temperature of this reaction is constant by checking the temperature constantly while carrying out the experiment. This is important because heat gives the particles more energy thus allowing more successful collisions to occur more often. This is all done to make sure that the reaction is happening due to the concentration of the acid. This makes sure that the test is fair and there are no other factors affecting the rate of reaction. ...read more.


This is because when I was carrying out the experiment I estimated the size of the chip as I was not sure in anyway of ensuring that the surface area of the marble chip was the same. This experiment could have been more accurate and more reliable if the temperature and the surface area had been kept the same. As I mentioned in the analysis of the results, I had a couple of anomalous results on my graph. I think this happened while I was carrying out the experiment. I noticed that the gas syringe jerked as the reaction took place which made it difficult to read the actual volume made. The other reason is that there could be human error usually known as the parallax error. This is when the results from the syringe are not read accurately. I noticed that when I used the bung to close the flask the syringe moved a little bit making my results inaccurate. This 'bung effect' was inevitable as I tired to correct it but was in vain. I could do further work on this experiment to improve my prediction by using more accurate equipment. I would try to keep the temperature constant by using a water bath. I if had more time I would have carried out the experiment more times and compare the results. This would make the experiment results more reliable and also accurate if the results compare to be similar. I would also use a gas syringe which can handle a greater volume of gas so I could finish the whole experiment. I could use a larger range of acid concentrations so as to have more graphs from which to compare. GCSE Chemistry Coursework The Tuition Centre Bhavin Patel - 1 - ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Marble Chips and Hydrochloric Acid.

    4 star(s)

    Prediction of Expected Volume of Carbon Dioxide CaCO (s) + 2HCl (aq) CaCl (aq) + CO (g) + H O When Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric acid are reacted together, CO will be produced. We are able to calculate the amount of CO that will be formed after the completion of the experiment.

  2. Free essay

    Chemistry Rate of Reaction Coursework for Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid

    Also, the fact that we have to reset it to 0 at the start, whilst the reactants are already reacting, provides unreliable timing, and therefore unreliable results. Conclusion After trialling all of the methods for measuring the rate of reaction, I have formed a clear view of the reliability of each method, and the practicality.

  1. Measuring the Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate

    This should in theory increase the rate of reaction as the concentration is increased. The reaction rate, however, should decrease as the experiment progresses because as the reaction time increases the number of hydrochloric acid molecules present will decrease as they have been reacted to form water calcium chloride and carbon dioxide.

  2. Investigate how changing the surface area of Calcium carbonate affects the rate of reaction ...

    My prediction matched with my results. The graph showing the average percentage loss in mass with different states of marble proves that the higher surface area of marble the faster it will react. The evidence obtained shows us that surface area is a large factor in determining the rate of reaction.

  1. The reaction between Calcium carbonate and Hydrochloric acid.

    Method I am going to change the concentration of the hydrochloric acid to 5 different concentrations 100%, 80%, 60%, 40% and 20%. 100% = 50cm3 hydrochloric acid 80% = 40cm3 hydrochloric acid and 10cm3 water 60% = 30cm3 hydrochloric acid and 20cm3 water 40% = 20cm3 hydrochloric acid and 30cm3

  2. Free essay

    How does Concentration affect the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate

    Flask placed on scales with cotton wool blocking up top. The mass is measured every 10 seconds. Each method has its drawbacks, however. Method 2 had a large scope for human error as it is extremely hard to tell when the calcium carbonate table has dissolved.

  1. Investigate how concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCL) affects its reaction with calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

    As each showed that more than 100cm3 CO2 gas was produced it was impossible for me to take an average because I did not know the two exact values. For example, one of the values could be 102 or 104 and the other could be 105 or 107.

  2. Investigating the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate

    of the reaction therefore I will only variable I will be changing is the volume of hydrochloric acid by diluting it with water. which means to keep it a fair test I will use the same amount (0.1g) of calcium carbonate which is a powder because this allows us to

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work