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How Does Changing The Temperature Of Acid Affect The Rate That Limestone Reacts.

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Introduction

Stephanie Fletcher The Problem How Does Changing The Temperature Of Acid Affect The Rate That Limestone Reacts Background Knowledge Limestone is a solid giant structure made up of calcium, carbon and oxygen particles. The particles do not move but vibrate. Hydrochloric acid when mixed with water is a liquid. It is made up of hydrogen and bonded chloride at produce hydrogen chloride. The particles in the acid vibrate a lot more then those in a solid, and move around a given area at random. When limestone and hydrochloric acid congregate the calcium carbonate starts to dissolve. The hydrogen chloride atoms collide with the outside of the limestone. The more energy the hydrochloric acid particles have to collide with the limestone the faster the reaction will occur. This is known as the collision theory. When the hydrogen chloride collides with the calcium, carbon and oxygen particles they form a molecule. This happens as the collisions occur, bonds brake off the limestone. These particles then join with other particles to form products. The products are calcium chloride, carbon dioxide and water. The word equation for this chemical reaction is:- Calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide The symbol equation for limestone dissolving in hydrochloric acid is:- Predictions My prediction for how does changing the temperature of acid affect the rate that limestone reacts is, the hotter the temperature, the quicker the rate the limestone will react with the acid. Linking Prediction with Theory The hotter the acid gets the faster the reaction will take place. This is because the acid particles gain more energy and have a lot more successful collisions. ...read more.

Middle

17.60 16.01 40 1 50 1.5 4 40 56.73 60.61 58.67 I added another row to my table as I had an anomalous result. This means that the 40�C experiment did not fit onto the graph when I plotted my results. So I re-did the experiment and I recorded my results and plotted 58.57 seconds onto the graph. This was still an anomalous result so I left the graph as it was, as the previous time for 40�C time was closer to the line. If I had more time then I would have checked the 30�C temperature to see if that made a difference to my curve line. Stephanie Fletcher Conclusion In my experiment I added 4 pieces of limestone to the 50cm� of hydrochloric acid and recorded the time it took to collect 40 cm� of carbon dioxide. The hotter the temperature got the faster the limestone reacted with the hydrogen chloride. The hydrochloric particles would get more energy from the heat and therefore they would be more active. This would increase the chances of a successful collision happening between calcium carbonate particles and the hydrochloric acid as they will collide with more force. A successful collision is when the acid particles collide with the limestone and break the bonds. I did think that as the temperature increased the time it took to collect 40cm� of carbon dioxide would decrease. My prediction of that the hotter the temperature of the acid the quicker the limestone reacted was proven right. I think that this was because the more energy the hydrochloric particles got from the heat the bigger the force they used when they collided with the limestone. ...read more.

Conclusion

To make it a fair test every time I did the experiment I should have started the time at equal times. For example I could have started the timer 5 seconds after putting the end of the delivery tube into the measuring cylinder, every time I did the experiment. I wanted to collect 40cm� of carbon dioxide each time I repeated the experiment. However it is hard to tell that I have collected the same amount each time I did the investigation as the level of water wasn't straight so I couldn't tell if it was 39, 40 or 31cm� of carbon dioxide I had collected. This would effect the time it took to collect the gas because I didn't stop the timer until I collect 40cm� of gas. If it was less then 40cm� then the time to collect the gas would be a lot less then it should really be, if the it was more then 40cm�, then the time to collect the gas would be a lot more then it should have been. To prevent my getting an accurate time I should have concentrated more or collected more then 40cm� of carbon dioxide. By collecting more gas I deceased the percentage of collecting more gas. In my graph I had an anomalous result. This meant that one of the times wasn't accurate enough and I had made a huge error. I re-did the temperature but still got an anomalous result, so I left the pervious time as it was closer to my curve. If I had more time then I could have redone the section between 30�C and 40�C. I would have done more temperatures in between these and then plotted these results and joined up a curve to get rid of the error. For example 30�C, 32�C, 34�C,36�C, 38�C and 40�C. ...read more.

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