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How Does Concentration Affect the Rate of a Chemical Reaction?

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Introduction

How Does Concentration Affect the Rate of a Chemical Reaction? >> Introduction The rates of chemical reactions are affected by 4 different factors; concentration, temperature, surface area and the presence of a catalyst. As for concentration, it affects the rate of reaction due to the collision theory. The name of this theory speaks for itself; it involves the colliding of particles. For example: In these diagrams, the black dots represent sodium thiosulphate and the blue dots represent hydrochloric acid. In the diagram on the left, it shows different particles all cramped and colliding with each other. This is because the higher the concentration, the more of these particles there are to collide, therefore speeding up the reaction. Whereas if there are fewer particles to collide like in the diagram on the right (weaker concentration), there are fewer particles therefore collisions are less frequent, therefore the reaction rate is slower. There are many ways to observe the speed of a chemical reaction, for example, in a chemical reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid, we will have to observe how long sulphur will take to form, and that is the rate of reaction. The experiment I will be conducting is based on what I have been talking about; how concentration affects the rate of a chemical reaction. ...read more.

Middle

0.1M will have to slowest reaction rate whereas 1.0M will have the quickest reaction rate due to the fact that the greater the concentration, the more particles there are to react with, therefore speeding up the reaction rate i.e. the collision theory (refer to the introductory paragraph for the theory). For example, I predict that if I double the concentration, the amount of time for the reaction will be halved. >> Fair Test The independent variable in this investigation is the concentration of the hydrochloric acid and the dependant variable is the time taken for the reaction to be completed. The factor that I will be constantly changing throughout this investigation is the concentration of hydrochloric acid, I will start with the lowest concentration (0.3M) then one by one I will use a higher concentration until I have completed testing with concentration 1.0M, I will then repeat the process to make the results as accurate as possible. To make it a fair test, I will keep the all the required substances at room temperature and keep the same amount to ensure that the quantity does not affect the rate of reaction. >> Equipments These are the equipment I will be using: > Glass Beaker > Clock timer > Burette Other equipments include: safety goggles, metal ruler, measuring cylinder, >> Method Firstly I will gather the necessary equipment needed for this experiment i.e. ...read more.

Conclusion

Therefore, I left the results as they were. As for the safety side of this experiment, I had to be extra careful with the hydrochloric acid. I had to be careful not to get it onto my skin as the acid is corrosive. Most importantly, I had to be careful with all equipment and make sure I did not have any accidents with the things around the classroom. I don't think that this experiment can be improved in any way because all the factors of the experiment were controlled and should've, if not did ensure optimum accuracy. I could've gotten better results by repeating the experiment once or twice more to narrow down the average to get it as accurate as I possibly can, but I believe that doing the experiment 3 times will provide the sufficient and necessary accuracy for this investigation. There are other factors which affect the rate of reaction, and by investigating these other factors (temperature or surface area), it will further increase the accuracy of how factors affect the rate of reaction. Another method of improvement can be the use of 'data logging' systems. By working out the equation of the results graph, I can use the data logger to accurate work out the results for any reaction rate at speed and accuracy, hence, making the results better and more reliable. 23rd February 2006 Ms Rahim C/w Venh-Pat Ly // 10F - 1 - ...read more.

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