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How Does Concentration Affect the Rate of a Reaction?

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Introduction

How Does Concentration Affect the Rate of a Reaction? Planning experimental procedures Aim: In this experiment I am going to see if varying the concentration of the mixture of Sodium Thiosulphate and Dilute Hydrochloric Acid affects the speed of reaction. The amount of Sodium Thiosulphate will be varied and to make up water will be added. Hypothesis: I think that as the amount of Sodium Thiosulphate in the concentration decreases the larger the reaction time becomes. I think this because the particles will have to move around the water particles so that they can react with each other, also if there are more particles there will be more collisions and so a faster reaction. On the left is a diagram of the particles colliding. Apparatus: Dilute Hydrochloric Acid Sodium Thiosulphate Water Beaker Stopwatch 50cm3 Measuring Cylinder 10cm3 Measuring Cylinder Paper (with cross (X) drawn on it in pencil) Conical Flask Goggles Safety: I will make this experiment safe by wearing goggles to stop chemicals from entering the eyes, and if and chemicals touches the skin I will wash it off immediately. Method: * Put on Goggles * Put a conical flask over a piece of paper with a cross (X) drawn on it in pencil * Using a 10cm3 measuring cylinder measure out 10cm3 of Dilute Hydrochloric acid and pour into conical flask * Using a 50cm3 measuring cylinder measure out 50cm3 of Sodium Thiosulphate and pour this into the conical flask. ...read more.

Middle

Working: Analysing Evidence and Conclusions Findings: In this experiment I have found out, that due to the collision theory, that concentration does affect the rate of reaction, this means as the amount of Sodium Thiosulphate in the concentration the larger the reaction time becomes. Graph: See page 5. Showing the rate of reaction against amount of Sodium Thiosulphate. Trends: There is an obvious trend on the graph. This trend is that the more Sodium Thiosulphate that is present the least time it takes for the reaction to take place. The results prove my hypothesis, and the collision theory. The collision theory also helps prove my hypothesis in that the more collisions means a faster reaction which is true. This can be proved as the more Sodium Thiosulphate there was the more collisions there was and so a faster reaction. The rate of reaction can be shown using a formula and applying this to the previous results and then a graph can be drawn. - rate of reaction 1 � time Working: Graph: Graph showing speed of reaction against the amount of Sodium Thiosulphate - This page Graph showing the rate of reaction against the amount of Sodium Thiosulphate - On the back of this page Trends: There are also trends in the graph showing the rate of reaction in the reaction of Sodium Thiosulphate and Dilute Hydrochloric Acid. ...read more.

Conclusion

The suitability of the procedure was not excellent. Here are some reasons for the anomalous result and examples of how to improve these: * Eyesight was used to see when the cross was disappearing, this can be unreliable as your eyesight not be very good. An answer to this is to use light sensors to detect when the cross can no longer be seen. * Drops of the Hydrochloric Acid, Sodium Thiosulphate and Water were left in the measuring cylinders and conical flask due to surface tension. Pipettes could be used to pour the liquids and a different conical flask could be used each time however they will have to be the same size. The evidence is fairly reliable and does agree with my hypothesis and with evidence I have found in the "Letts GCSE Science Book" and "Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopaedia" To improve this experiment and get better results you could change the variable in the experiment from Sodium Thiosulphate to Hydrochloric Acid or to temperature. Using different apparatus can make more improvements in the experiment, for example, light sensors, pipettes and more conical flasks and measuring cylinders can be used. In conclusion, I have proved my hypothesis, in that as the amount of Sodium Thiosulphate decreases the larger the reaction time becomes. In other words, the more Sodium Thiosulphate there is the faster the cross, on the paper under the conical flask, will disappear. Graham Pearce Chemistry 1st Piece of Coursework Year 10 Page 1 of 7 ...read more.

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