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How Does Concentration Affect the Rate of Reaction?

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Introduction

How Does Concentration Affect the Rate of Reaction? By Danielle Clarke Introduction This investigation is about finding out how concentration affects the rate of reaction in an experiment. Th rate of reaction is the rate of loss of a reactant or the rate of formation of a product during a chemical reaction. I already know that by changing the variables you can alter the rate of reaction by increase or decrease. The variables are: Temperature: In terms of particles, if you increase the temperature of a chemical reaction the particles gain kinetic energy and heating then makes them move faster. When particles move faster they collide more often and with more energy, resulting in more successful collisions. A decrease in temperature would have the opposite effect. Concentration: An increase in the concentration of a chemical substance reacting with another would result in the particles crowding closer together due to more particles being added. This process makes it easier for the particles to collide more frequently and efficiently, so it speeds up the reaction. Again, a decrease in concentration would have the opposite effect. Surface Area: The particles inside a solid cannot be exposed until the outside particles have reacted. ...read more.

Middle

My results will be recorded accurately in a table that is clear and easy to read, I will produce this on rough paper before I do the experiment to save time. To ensure my results are reliable, I am going to do each experiment twice and if the two results are not close together then I will be able to see that my experiment has gone wrong somewhere and is not accurate. Therefore, I will do it again until it looks reliable enough to continue. Detailed Instructions for Investigation * Collect all equipment and put on safety goggles. * Set up equipment. (As shown below.) * Ensure all equipment is clean and untampered with. * Carefully measure 10cm3 of Hydrochloric Acid into a measuring cylinder. * Draw a cross on a piece of paper. * You now have to make the fist concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate, using the table on previous page to work out the ratio of Sodium Thiosulphate to water. * E.g. To get 0.1M of Sodium Thiosulphate, carefully measure 5cm3 of Sodium Thiosulphate into a 50cm3 measuring cylinder and add 45cm3 of water to dilute it. ...read more.

Conclusion

The accuracy of the results cannot be perfect as I was relying on just my judgement to tell me when the X had disappeared, so the time it took for me to judge when the X had disappeared and then stop the clock will not be totally accurate. In my results table, the results for 0.1 M were not perfect, as there was a difference of 6 seconds between them. However I decided that this was close enough to carry on with the experiment and wouldn't really interfere with my final conclusion. The experiment I conducted was suitable for its purpose as I was in a classroom and facilities are limited, although I would like to do the experiment properly in a laboratory and see how accurate my results actually were. If I were to do the experiment again I would probably measure the Sodium Thiosulphate into 2 25cm3 measuring cylinders rather than into a 50cm3 cylinder and dividing it into two. This is because it was quite hard to get 25cm3 exactly in each cylinder and took up a lot of time, even though I thought it would save time. All in all I believe that my results are reliable enough to support the conclusion that rate of reaction decreases as concentration increases and I have proven that. ...read more.

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