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How does Concentration affect the rate of reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid?

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Introduction

How does Concentration affect the rate of reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid? Secondary resources: Chemical reactions only occur when reacting particles collide with each other, with sufficient energy to react, this is called the collision theory. The minimum amount of energy required to cause this reaction is called the Activation energy. There are four main factors which affect the rate of reaction. The first factor is: Temperature of reactants: When the temperature increases the particles move around faster (because they have more energy). Because the particles are moving faster , they are more likely to collide. When the temperature is low, the particles are slower and they also collide less. The temperature drop lowers the rate of reaction. Another factor is: Concentration of the reactants: Concentration effects the rate of reaction because if there is more of a substance, that means there is more particles. If there is more particles, there as an increase number of collisions and an increased rate of reaction. If there is less of a substance, that means there is less particles, therefore there will be less collisions and an decrease in the rate of reaction. Another factor is: The use of a catalyst: A catalyst is a substance which increases the rate of a chemical reaction, without being used up in the progress. Catalysts are specific, I.e. different reactions need different catalysts. A catalyst lowers the amount of energy needed for a successful collision, so more collisions will be successful and the reaction will be faster . ...read more.

Middle

HCA (cm) H20 (cm) Time (s) Gas collected (cm) Factors that were changed 0.1g (granules) 20cm 0cm 16.36 seconds 30cm With syringe 0.2g (granules) 20cm 0cm 10.11 seconds 30cm With syringe I have lastly decided o use the two decimal place stopwatch and weighing scale because my experiment will be more accurate. Pre-test results table Magnesium (g) HCL (cm) H20 (cm) Time (s) Gas collected (cm) Factors that were changed 0.1g (granules) 20cm 0cm 12.38 seconds 50cm With syringe 0.1g (strip) 20cm 0cm 26.70 seconds 30cm With syringe 0.1g (powder) 20cm 0cm No time 30cm Without syringe 0.1g (powder) 20cm 0cm 08.28 seconds 30cm With syringe 0.1g (granules) 20cm 0cm 17.9 seconds 30cm Magnesium put in first and with syringe 0.2g (granules) 20cm 0cm 10.11 seconds 30cm With syringe Method: I have decided to use the water displacement method to carry out my experiment. * First of all I collected all the equipment. * Then I measured 0.1g of magnesium. * Then I filled up the troph with water, I put the beehive shell in the middle of the troph. Then I got a measuring cylinder filled it up with water, put It upside down in the troph, on top of the beehive shell. Making sure the measuring cylinder is still full of water. * Then I got a conical flask and put in 0.1g of magnesium granules. * Then I measured 20cm of hydrochloric acid in a measuring cylinder, before putting in the hydrochloric acid in the conical flask I got my bung and put the syringe in the buns. ...read more.

Conclusion

I also predicted that the weaker the concentration the longer it takes to collect hydrogen gas and the rate of reaction will also decrease, my results also prove the last part of my prediction correct so does my graph. Evaluation: After carrying out my investigation, I thought my method was very appropriate because I didn't get many anomalous results, based on my background research I thought my results were very accurate. Out of my result table I only obtained one anomalous result, I think I got this result because I forget to turn off the stop watch on time. I could improve my method by weighing the magnesium accurately, which will give me a better result. I also could improve my method by measuring the hydrochloric acid and water accurately, which will give me a better result. I could have also use distilled water or mineral water because these types water are more pure than tap water and would have given a better result. To improve my method I also could have used berates to measure the acid accurately, which would have given me a much better result. The factors that effected my results, that I couldn't control were temperature of water, room temperature and because I carried out my investigation on different days so on the different days the temperature will also be different. I could control temperature by carrying out the experiment on the same day, so the temperature will be the same. I think my results are very reliable I can see a clear pattern that matches my research despite the errors. ...read more.

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