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How does concentration affect the rate of reaction?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

How does concentration affect the rate of reaction? Aim: To investigate how different concentrations of hydrochloric aci9d affect the rate of reaction on marble chip, (calcium carbonate). Background information: Different reactions take place at different rate. The measurement of the change can take place in a single unit of time; it can take seconds, minutes, hours and even days. It can be either fast or slow. Reaction rates are explained by the collision theory. The collision theory is explained by the rate of reaction. This is when reaching particles collide with each other. In order for particles to react, this depends on how often and how hard they collide. There are four main methods that are explained in terms of increasing the number of collisions so that the rate of reaction also increases between the reacting particles. These are: Temperature, concentration, surface area and a catalyst. Temperature causes particles to collide faster if the temperature is high and slower if the temperature is low. By increasing the temperature, the reactant particles are supplied with a lot of energy, they move faster and this increases the chance of more successful collisions, because the reacting particles have an increase in energy, the particles can collide hard enough to make a reaction happen. In year 9, I studied the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction. It was an experiment to investigate the reaction between thiosulphate and acid. This reaction showed that there were faster collisions at 300C than there were at 200C. At higher temperatures, ions have more kinetic energy and collide more often and more vigorously, giving them a greater chance of reacting. ...read more.

Middle

The rate of reaction of the third trial=gradient Rate of reaction of 2.0 mole of concentration = 53 = 53cm3 per minute 1 rate of reaction of 1.5 mole of concentration = 33 = 33cm3 per minute 1 rate of reaction of 1.0 mole of concentration = 13 = 13cm3 per minute 1 rate of reaction of 0.5 mole of concentration = 4 = 4cm3 per minute 1 rate of reaction of 0.1mole of concentration = 0 = 0cm3 per minute 1 Conclusion: These results show that as the concentration increases from 0.1m to 2.0m the gas produced increases from 0 to 264cm3 this indicates that as the concentration increased the rate of reaction also increased. Also based on my scientific knowledge of the collision theory I know that the higher the concentration in an acid the faster the rate of reaction, because the higher the concentration the more chances for the particles to collide more frequently and more chances for successful collisions. Apparatus: the following piece of equipment will be used to do the experiment. * Hydrochloric acid solutions- the reactants for the experiment * Marble chips/ calcium carbonate- another reactant for the experiment. * Conical flask- to put the reactant of the experiment inside. * Gas syringe, delivery tube and bung- when connected together, it will measure the volume of gas given off in the experiment, when the bung is inserted into the conical flask. * Electronic weighing scales- to measure the mass of the marble chips. * Spatula- to measure the amount of marble chips used for experiment. * Stopwatch- To time every minute until 5 minutes, so I can see how much gas is produced over a period of time. ...read more.

Conclusion

The person also checked their equipment before actually using it so there were no problems with it. If I were to repeat this experiment I would make various changes in the way I constructed myself and carry out the experiment like: * I would firstly make sure the marble chips were more accurately measured so that they are the same size. * I would wash the beakers after using them each time so that the concentrations are not diluted. * I would make sure the stop clock is started immediately as the marble chips are placed in the concentration. * I would use more concentrations so that there would be a wider summary of the experiment * My experiment would be repeated three times so I could make an average of the results, this would increase accuracy. * Keep the mass and the surface area of the marble chips the same (maybe use the powder like substance rather than different sized marble chips). * Prevent contamination-by washing the conical flask thoroughly. * The length of time in which I do the experiment could be lengthened, so I can get longer timings, this would give a better idea of the rate of reaction of each concentration. * I would use more concentrations to see how they differ form the concentrations I have used and it would give a better spread of results. I would like to further my knowledge of the topic and investigate temperature catalyst and surface on the rate of reaction on a marble chip, the thought of this is ideal but I know it is very difficult to do. I found when looking in textbooks that the graphs were demonstrated as a curve. ...read more.

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