• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10

How does temperature affect the rate of a chemical reaction?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

How does temperature affect the rate of a chemical reaction? Introduction This year in chemistry we have been studying different types of reactions and what affects their rate. To help with this work, we have been given an experiment to investigate and analyse the factors influencing the rate. The Aim of this experiment is to investigate the effect on the rate of reaction caused by changes in temperature. I will be using the "Iodine Clock" experiment to investigate how temperature affects the rate of a chemical reaction Background Knowledge * Reactants - chemicals you start with * Products - chemicals you produce * Activation energy - the amount of energy which colliding particles must have in order to start a chemical reaction and change reactant particles into products. This energy is used in the breaking of chemical bonds. What is the rate of a reaction? The rate of a reaction is the speed of a chemical reaction, calculated by measuring how quickly reactants (chemicals you start with) change into products (chemicals you produce). The rate of a particular chemical reaction is affected by various factors like the temperature, pressure, concentration and surface area of the reactants, or the presence of a catalyst. (The Oxford Science Study Dictionary) In a chemical reaction, the starting materials are called the reactants, and the finishing materials are called the products. It takes time for a chemical reaction to happen. If the reactant takes only a short time to change in to the product, that reaction is a fast reaction. The speed of or rate of that reaction is high. If a reaction takes a long time to change the reactant into the product, it is a slow reaction. The speed or rate of that reaction is low. The rate of a reaction is proportional to 1 Time taken for the change The factors which affect the rate of reaction are:- 1. ...read more.

Middle

I will also wash my hands after each practical lesson so that any spills of the chemicals will be washed off. Fair Test In order for my findings to be valid the experiment must be a fair one. I will make sure that the measuring cylinders for the potassium iodate and sodium disulphate will not be mixed up. I will also keep the concentration of the solution the same each time: * The amount of potassium iodate used will be 5cm� each time * The amount of sodium disulphate used will be 5cm� each time * The amount of distilled water used will be 30cm� each time I chose these volumes because in a previous experiment I carried out to find out the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction I used the same solutions and found that at room temperature (approx 21�c) the concentrations above took (on average) 117 seconds to turn a blue/black colour. This is almost two minutes, it is important that the timing is not too short because then human error would play a bigger part. I felt that this concentration would give me sensible values for the rate of reaction at each temperature without getting too small too quickly. During the heating stage of the experiment, a blue flame will be used throughout. Also the same Bunsen burner and gas tap will be used to maintain continuity. All of these precautions will make my final results more reliable and keep anomalies at a minimum and thus make the entire investigation more successful. Pilot Test I will carry out a pilot test to ensure that the way I have planned my experiment will actually work in practice and give me the range of results I require. I will do this by carrying out one test run for each extreme of temperature i.e. 10�C and 80�C and checking the time taken for the solution to turn a blue/black colour. ...read more.

Conclusion

My main limitation was time. To improve the reliability of the results more tests could have been done but there was limited time so this became a problem. I would also try to make my experiment even more accurate. I would do this by monitoring all the factors much more closely such as trying to make sure that the temperature of the solution remained the same throughout the time it took to react. I think it would be interesting to use a temperature probe connected to a data logger so that I could see (as a graph) if the temperature fluctuated at all during the time when the chemicals were reacting. Overall, I would state the experiment as a success since my predictions were supported by my results. This is important in reflecting success only if my prediction was sensible and logical. Just as important is where the experiment was not a success and why. I think that even though we didn't have any equipment to notice slight changes in temperature, that overall our experiments were accurate enough to make an certain conclusion, as all our experiments gave very similar results as you can see in the results table and there weren't any glaringly obvious errors or differences between them. I think that with the equipment we had we managed to carry out a very accurate experiment and produce an accurate conclusion and evaluation. We could do more work to take the investigation further, such as increasing the range of temperatures investigated by going below 20�c the intervals between recordings could also be altered, such as taking results every 5�c instead of every 10�c. This, as well as adding "extra-sensitive equipment" would all add to making the results more accurate and we would be able to give a definite, firm conclusion due to the sheer volume of results we would have and how accurate all these would be. March 2003 Lucy Blackbourn 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Rates of Reaction - The Iodine Clock

    Trial experiments should be performed for each of the three variables to determine the volumes of non-limiting reagents (controlled variables) that will exhibit the best possible range of results when reacted together along with the limiting reagent. The best range (and therefore chemical mixture)

  2. Free essay

    Close Your Eyes

    Me and Carrie were at my house getting ready. The guys were picking us up in about 5 minutes and we were just finishing our make-up. I was just adding more lip gloss when suddenly my stomach flipped and I had to rush to the bathroom.

  1. The Iodine Clock

    set of results that seem to follow a pattern such as the one I predicted. Extension: If I was to repeat the experiment, or improve upon it, I would change one of the following: temperature of the solution (instead of concentration), use a light probe or different more reliable resources,

  2. A-Level Investigation - Rates of Reaction – The Iodine Clock

    5 5 8 8 H2O2 10 10 10 10 15 20 10 20 H2SO4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Starch 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Time (secs) 16 30 83 235 106 84 102 52 RESULTS: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Volume (ml)

  1. Investigating the rate of a reaction

    Hydrochloric acid is a particularly dangerous substance as it is corrosive to skin, meaning that it can damage eyes, skin and tissue underneath the skin. The precautions that must be taken are stated below: * Wear goggles, to ensure that no acid has contact with the eye.

  2. Rate of Reaction

    However there could be errors due to the stopwatch's battery. * The hydrochloric acid had to be the same because if we used another bottle, there would have been chances of it being tampered and our experiments would end with incorrect results.

  1. Investigating the Factors That Affect the Rate of a Chemical Reaction

    When the solution is diluted with more water the solute particles are more spread out and so less likely to collide and react. Also by having a higher concentration there is a greater chance of having more successful collisions. I will be alternating the concentrations of hydrochloric acid to see

  2. Investigate the relationship between the rate of the reaction and the different changes caused ...

    (I will also draw two graphs to help the investigation by using my results.) This is the reaction that will be used: Sodium thiosulphate + hydrochloric acid � sodium chloride + water +sulphur dioxide + sulpher I will use the same solution in order to make a fair experiment.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work