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How does temperature affect the rate of reaction between either; a) 250 cm ³of sodium thiosulphate solution and 50 cm ³ of hydrochloric acid, or b) 20 cm of magnesium ribbon and 250 cm ³of hydrochloric acid?

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Introduction

How does temperature affect the rate of reaction between either; a) 250 cm � of sodium thiosulphate solution and 50 cm � of hydrochloric acid, or b) 20 cm of magnesium ribbon and 250 cm � of hydrochloric acid? Background knowledge. There are many factors, which can affect the rate of reaction; these include the effect of temperature, concentration, surface area, pressure of gases and the effect of a catalyst. Temperature: In a cold reaction the particles move slowly so they don't collide with each other as much. When they do collide the collisions will be less successful as they have less energy. If the reactants are heated they will have more energy, the particles will move faster and collide more so more collisions will be successful. LOW TEMPERATURE. HIGH TEMPERATURE. Concentration: If the reactants are in low concentration the particles are spread out and will collide less often and less successfully. When the reactants are in high concentration the particles are close together and will collide more often and so more are successful. Surface area: Large particles have a smaller surface area in relation to their volume, less particles are exposed and available for collisions. This means there will be less collisions and a slower reaction. Small particles however have a larger surface area in relation to their volume- more particles are exposed and available for collisions, this means there are more particles colliding with one another and so a faster rate of reaction. ...read more.

Middle

Apparatus: 250 cm � Na2S2O3, 50 cm � HCl, beaker, thermometer, paper, measuring cylinder, stopwatch, tongs, gauze, tripod, Bunsen burner, safety goggles, stirring rod, bench mat. Method. 1) Collect your equipment (as shown above) and set it up as shown in the diagram. 2) Use 30 cm � of Na2S2O3 and place the beaker on top of the paper with the 'X' marked on it. Add the 5 cm � of HCl and time how long it takes for the 'X' to disappear. Record the time and the accurate temperature. 3) Heat 30 cm � of Na2S2O3 until it reaches your next target temperature (approx.) then place the beaker on the paper and add another 5 cm � of HCl. 4) Time how long it takes for the 'X' to disappear, remember to take the accurate temperature and record your results. 5) Keep repeating this until you get a full set of results, making sure you keep the volume of acid and thio the same. My results. Conclusion. Target temp. (� C) Actual temp. (� C) Time taken (secs) 20 26 21.44 30 35 12 35 37 10.47 40 40 9.40 45 46 7.32 50 52 5.78 60 60 3.69 My results show me that as the temperature increases, the rate of reaction increases too. ...read more.

Conclusion

If the beaker wasn't rinsed out thoroughly enough this may have caused contamination and lead to a mistake in my results. As I was using a measuring cylinder with a capacity of 25 ml and I needed 30 ml of sodium thiosulphate - I had to measure it out twice and this could easily have made my point slightly of the graph. I think my method was a good but I could improve it by making the instructions slightly clearer although I found it easy to follow. If I were to do the experiment again I would improve it by taking more results to ensure it was accurate, I would do the experiment twice and then find my average results which would make the experiment better. I would also use a larger measuring cylinder to avoid mistakes whilst measuring out the substances. I think my experiment was good enough to give the conclusion that temperature affects the rate of reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid. This is because my experiment was as fair as possible and I didn't make many errors. There are other experiments, which could be done to support my conclusions and to extend the investigation. The temperature, concentration, surface area, pressure of gases and the effect of a catalyst are all other factors which affect the rate of reaction so I could base another experiment on one of these to obtain more evidence and make the investigation more accurate. ...read more.

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